Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and. Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is a controversial herbal treatment that uses Some people use CBD oil to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Cannabidiol or CBD oil has become popular for pain treatment. People drop in inflammation and signs of pain, without additional side effects.
inflammation symptoms pain and cbd pills for
As such patients require immunocompetent cells to keep hepatitis under control, chronic marijuana abuse may promote fibrogenesis through the activation of CB2 and consequent suppression of antiviral immunity [ 77 ]. Endocannabinoids may also regulate liver cirrhosis by acting as mediators of vascular and cardiac functions. Endocannabinoids can trigger vasorelaxation, while an upregulated CB1-mediated cannabinoid tone causes enhanced mesenteric vasodialation leading to portal hypertension [ 73 , 75 ].
A recent in vivo study by Batkai et al. Further improvement in contractile function of isolated papillary muscles was observed following treatment with AM, a CB1 receptor antagonist, suggesting therapeutic potential against cirrhotic cardiomyopathy [ 75 ].
There are limited, but reliable, data on the neuroprotective role of the endocannabinoid system in hepatic encephalopathy. It has been demonstrated in a murine model that, during fulminant hepatic failure, levels of 2-AG in the brain are elevated, potentially as a response to liver damage. Thus, influencing the endocannabinoid system with exogenous cannabinoid derivates specific for the CB1 or CB2 receptor may have a beneficial therapeutic effect on neurological dysfunction in liver diseases [ 78 ].
Recently, we noted that both exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids protected mice from concanavalin-A ConA -induced acute hepatitis, a model that mimics viral or autoimmune hepatitis, in which T cells play a critical role in triggering liver injury.
We found that administration of a single dose of THC or anandamide could ameliorate Con-A-induced hepatitis. This overwhelming evidence shows that the cannabinoid system must play a major role in the pathophysiology of various liver diseases and its therapeutic potential should be exploited for the treatment of chronic liver injuries Figure 2.
Endocannabinoids, CB1 antagonists and CB2 agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of liver injury. The major immune cell populations involved in joint injury are macrophages, T cells, fibroblast-like synoviocytes and DCs. Cannabinoids and their anti-inflammatory properties have been studied in animal models of RA and on human cells from RA patients and these studies demonstrate the anti-arthritic properties of these natural plant compounds [ 32 , 82 — 84 ].
Interestingly, most of the studies on RA and cannabinoids focus on the use of nonpsychoactive cannabinoids. CBD is the major nonpsychoactive component of the cannabis plant and its protective effect has been shown in murine collagen-induced arthritis [ 85 ].
Lymph node cells from HUtreated mice showed decreased proliferative responses when the cells from 7-day post-inflammation mice were incubated with collagen II. In a different study, Parker et al. AjA also exerts its immunomodulatory effects by inducing apoptosis in mature osteoclast-like cells and, therefore, protecting the host from osteoclastogenesis.
The hallmarks of cancer-related inflammation include the presence of inflammatory cells in tumor tissue, and the regulation of tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis by inflammatory mediators e.
The connection between inflammation and cancer is now generally accepted and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to reduce varied cancer risk.
Hence, inflammation can be considered as a therapeutic opportunity in certain types of cancer. Recent applications of cannabinoids have been extended as antitumor agents [ 1 , 88 ], which relies on their ability to inhibit tumor angiogenesis [ 89 ] or induce direct apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in neoplastic cells [ 89 — 92 ]. A focus on the antiproliferative effects of these compounds in various tumors, such as breast and prostate cancers, pheochromocytoma and malignant gliomas, has been proposed [ 1 , 92 — 94 ].
Our laboratory reported that, in vitro , THC and other cannabinoids could induce apoptosis in transformed murine and human T cells [ 95 ], including primary acute lymphoblastic human leukemia cells. The role of endocannabinoids as potential endogenous tumor growth inhibitors has been suggested in a study where it was observed that levels of both AEA and 2-AG were higher in precancerous polyps than in fully developed carcinomas in the colon [ 98 ].
Recent in vivo studies proposed that selective targeting of CB2 receptors resulted in colorectal tumor growth inhibition via apoptosis, which was mediated through the stimulation of ceramide [ 98 ]. In a xenograft model of thyroid cancer, substances that blocked endocannabinoid degradation also increased the levels of AEA and 2-AG in the tissue and reduced tumor growth [ 99 ].
Various attempts have been made to inactivate cannabinoid-degrading enzymes, thereby increasing the local concentration of endocannabinoids at the tumor cell surface. This leads to anti-tumor effects of CB receptor signaling in various cancer types, such as thyroid, brain and prostate cancer [ 99 — ]. Although the majority of the effects of cannabinoids are CB receptor mediated, AEA has been shown to induce its effects on cancerous cells by interacting with TRPV1 receptor [ , ] or cholesterol-rich lipid rafts [ ].
Furthermore, it has been reported that signaling pathways are differentially regulated by cannabinoids in normal cells versus cancer cells. In malignancies, such as thyroid cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, the levels of cannabinoid receptors are often higher in the tumor compared with normal cells of the same origin, resulting in increased sensitivity to cannabinoids in the malignancies [ 89 , — ].
Moreover, many animal studies have reported antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of cannabinoids on tumor cells but not on normal tissue [ 89 , 91 ].
Thus, the role of the cannabinoid system in cancer indicates that this system is involved in regulating many of the functions that are essential in cancer development. Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disorder characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness, elevated serum IgE, recruitment of eosinophils into the lung and mucus hypersecretion by goblet cells [ ]. While most studies have shown that cannabinoids, such as THC, facilitate a Th1 to Th2 cytokine switch, as discussed previously, it is surprising that cannabinoids can also suppress allergic asthma triggered primarily by Th2 cytokines.
Previous findings indicated that aerosolized THC was capable of causing significant bronchodilatation with minimal systemic side effects, but had a local irritating effect on the airways [ ]. Further bronchodilator effects of cannabinoids administered orally or by aerosol to asthmatic patients have also been reported [ , ].
Similarly, endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to regulate airway responsiveness. It was reported that activation of CB1 receptors by locally released anandamide may participate in the control of bronchial contractility. However, the authors further suggested that the effects of AEA may depend on the state of the bronchial muscle.
During capsaicin-evoked bronchospasm, AEA may reduce the muscle contraction, whereas AEA may cause bronchoconstriction in the absence of vagus nerve-constricting tone [ ]. Cannabidiol has been shown to be effective in protecting endothelial function and integrity in human coronary artery endothelial cells HCAECs.
In addition, proliferation and migration was markedly increased in activated cell populations. The use of CB2 agonists JWH and HU inhibited all activated pathways in a dose-dependent manner, establishing a novel use for these cannabinoid compounds [ ]. EAU was strongly inhibited when the CB2 was engaged and the effects of CB2 engagement appeared to be mediated predominantly through downregulation of T-cell function with a less-marked effect on antigen presentation [ ].
An impaired T-cell-proliferative response in leukocytes from JWHtreated mice was also accompanied by marked reductions in cytokine production. A study performed by Li et al. Similarly, CBD treatment has been shown to significantly inhibit and delay destructive insulitis and inflammatory Th1-associated cytokine production in nonobese diabetes-prone NOD female mice.
A recent study indicated that treatment of 11—week-old female NOD mice, either in a latent diabetes stage after 14 weeks or with initial symptoms of diabetes appearing up to 14 weeks with CBD for 4 weeks, could lead to sustained inhibition of insulitis [ ].
CBD treatment inhibited specific destruction of the islets and reduced the infiltrates by mononuclear cells into the islets, thus preventing diabetes. Furthermore, cannabinoids have also been demonstrated to possess additional beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes.
It has been reported that rats treated with CBD for periods of 1—4 weeks experienced significant protection from diabetic retinopathy [ ]. Cannabinoids have also been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain associated with the disease. Mice injected with a cannabis receptor agonist experienced a reduction in diabetic-related tactile allodynia compared with nontreated controls [ ].
Thus, cannabinoids can be considered useful for controlling T1D due to their anti-inflammatory properties. It is becoming increasingly clear that cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system. Exogenous cannabinoids have been shown to suppress T-cell-mediated immune responses by primarily inducing apoptosis and suppressing inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Such observations indicate that targeting cannabinoid receptor—ligand interactions may constitute a novel window of opportunity to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
As CB2 receptors are primarily expressed on immune cells, targeting CB2 may result in selective immunomodulation without overt toxicity. The future challenges for the use of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory drugs include synthesis of cannabinoid receptor agonists that are nonpsychoactive with anti-inflammatory activity and then identifying their mode of action. Although current studies suggest that cannabinoids are useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders, further evaluation of the mechanisms that account for their anti-inflammatory properties is necessary.
Such studies may involve the use of cannabinoid receptor-knockout mice and use of receptor-specific compounds. Whether endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors play a critical role during normal inflammatory response also requires further consideration. Moreover, cannabinoid receptor signaling and effect of cannabinoids on adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and chemokines require further study in order to increase our understanding of cannabinoids and their intricate effects on immune system disorders.
Overall, cannabinoids have exhibited significant potential to be used as novel anti-inflammatory agents and specific targeting of CB2 receptors holds the promise of mediating immunosuppressive effects without exerting psychotropic side effects. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.
This includes employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties. For reprint orders, please contact moc. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Future Med Chem. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors.
Table 1 Selected cannabinoid molecules. Open in a separate window. Apoptotic effects of cannabinoids on immune cell populations One major mechanism of immunosupression by cannabinoids is the induction of cell death or apoptosis in immune cell populations. Cannabinoid action on cytokines Cytokines are the signaling proteins synthesized and secreted by immune cells upon stimulation.
Table 2 Effect of cannabinoids on cytokine and chemokine production. Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis The three main cell types that are involved in demyelination of the nerve fibers and axons in the CNS include activated T-cells, microglia and astrocytes.
Reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria. Future perspective It is becoming increasingly clear that cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system. Executive summary Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, and endogenous cannabinoids mediate their effects through activation of specific cannabinoid receptors known as cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 CB1 and CB2.
The cannabinoid system has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to be involved in regulating the immune system through its immunomodulatory properties. Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory response and subsequently attenuate disease symptoms. Cannabinoids have been tested in several experimental models of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis and hepatitis and have been shown to protect the host from the pathogenesis through induction of multiple anti-inflammatory pathways.
Cannabinoids may also be beneficial in certain types of cancers that are triggered by chronic inflammation. In such instances, cannabinoids can either directly inhibit tumor growth or suppress inflammation and tumor angiogenesis. Sometimes, response to self antigens can trigger severe tissue injury. Footnotes For reprint orders, please contact moc. CA Cancer J Clin. Pollmann W, Feneberg W. Current management of pain associated with multiple sclerosis.
Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: Croxford JL, Yamamura T. Cannabinoids and the immune system: Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. Cannabinoid receptors are coupled to nitric oxide release in invertebrate immunocytes, microglia, and human monocytes. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor.
Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides. Identification of intracellular carriers for the endocannabinoid anandamide.
The biochemistry of apoptosis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Cannabinoid treatment suppresses the T-helper cell-polarizing function of mouse dendritic cells stimulated with Legionella pneumophila infection. A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells. Ajulemic acid, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid acid, induces apoptosis in human T lymphocytes. CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, JWH, triggers apoptosis in immune cells: Other times you may be in enough pain that you would like something that takes your mind off the pain while also offering pain relief.
In one survey , participants reported that indicas helped more than sativas when it came to headaches, joint pain, neuropathy, and spasticity. Users also reported indicas to be more helpful when it comes to sleep and sedation. Lastly, there are countless user reports on specific strains of weed that have been found to be powerful for relieving pain. While some of these strains are high CBD, indica strains, some strains of weed used for pain do not fall into this category.
It may be that the other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids have come together in a harmonious balance that leads to strong pain-relieving properties. There are limited studies examining the effect of CBD alone on pain in humans. When it comes to CBD only studies, the majority are preclinical or animal studies. That said, the research conducted thus far, along with countless user reports, suggests that CBD itself may be able to help relieve pain.
Activation of cannabinoid receptors has been linked to the inhibition of pain. The exact mechanisms of action are still being researched, however, CBD has been found to increase the levels of endocannabinoids in the body, specifically anandamide.
It is plausible that this increase in endogenous endocannabinoids could have an impact on pain. Another study suggests that CBD in rats induced suppression of chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain through potentiating glycine receptors.
Here we will examine the limited scientific evidence, along with theories relating to the use of CBD for pain. Neuropathic pain, also known as nerve pain, is a unique type of pain that is caused by injured, dysfunctional, or irritated nerves. This pain tends to be chronic and severe, and with no known cure or remedy, every individual is left to try numerous strategies to find something that works for them.
Some of the most common sources of neuropathy include diabetes, injury, cancer, infections, alcoholism, and autoimmune disorders. In an animal study , researchers found that oral supplementation of CBD led to improvements in neuropathic pain in rats. Back pain is one of the most common forms of both acute and chronic pain. Acute back pain tends to be caused by an injury, such as by falling or lifting something heavy. Chronic back pain is that which lasts more than three months and is often caused by a ruptured or bulging disc, arthritis, osteoporosis, scoliosis, or nerve pain.
Some back pain is partly caused by inflammation, and numerous preclinical and animal studies have found benefits of CBD for inflammation. Through possible reductions in both nerve and inflammatory pain, CBD may help relieve back pain. When it comes to localized pain, topical CBD lotion or creams may be a great option. While human studies on the efficacy of CBD lotion are lacking, there are plenty of animal studies and personal accounts to support this use. In one study , researchers found that rats with arthritis treated with transdermal CBD experienced reductions in pain-related behaviors and inflammation.
Cannabis and CBD dosing for pain are highly individual. Studies have found a bell-shaped dose-response curve with cannabis extract, meaning that it slowly becomes more effective until it hits a certain point, and then the effectiveness decreases. To further complicate matters, the effective dose found in human studies varies greatly from one condition and one study to the next. However, doses of Sativex, an oral spray that delivers 2.
CBD dosage for pain has not been examined in any human studies. Like the Cannabis sativa extract, studies have found that exceeding the optimal dose of CBD can lead to a reduction in efficacy.
In a study examining the effect of CBD on anxiety, mg and mg were not effective, where mg was. So where, then, should you start when it comes to dosing Cannabis sativa or CBD oil? Follow these steps when adding in a cannabis or CBD oil product:. Stay at the same dose for 3 or more days, evaluating your response.
Increase your dose until you find the best dose for you. Studies and anecdotal reports have shown that cannabis is good for pain. Whether you enjoy smoking weed or not, there are numerous products available for you to use if you live in a state where pot is legal.
This allows you to access the full potential of the wide array of healthful and anti-inflammatory compounds found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Best Marijuana for Pain Relief: Why use cannabis for pain relief? The history of cannabis: Weed and pain control Throughout history, cannabis has been cultivated and used for its medicinal purposes. The most commonly reported potential side effects of CBD usage were diarrhea and bloating, with some also reporting nausea.
Specifically, in dementia, some patients reported increased tremor with high dose CBD. As with any new treatment, patients and caregivers should monitor effects and outcomes closely. This does not mean it is non-psychoactive, but rather that the psychoactive effects are often beneficial and non-intoxicating vs. THC has also shown medicinal benefits for patients, particularly those suffering from pain or inflammation, especially when combined with CBD for consumption by patients.
CBD usually makes humans feel more awake and alert without negative impact on sleeping patterns. What is more likely happening is that cannabis strains being used by a patient that have high levels of CBD also contain a potentially sedating terpene such as myrcene.
Medical, locally sourced cannabis has consistently produced the best CBD source as it is held to stricter laboratory testing for potency and contaminants. Hemp based CBD would not technically have this restriction, but the sourcing and labeling risks are many. Medical based CBD has been legalized in more than 30 states and recreationally legal in a growing number of US locations.
CBD comes in many forms, it can be inhaled, taken in pill format as an oil to name just a few options. Most CBD patients prefer non-inhalable options, such as CBD-rich cannabis oil products that can be consumed orally such as gel caps , squeezed under the tongue with liquid dropper or as delivered via patches on the skin like band aids.
The effects of orally administered CBD can last for up to 4 hours, and the onset of effects has shown to take between minutes.
In cases of acute symptoms that require immediate attention, inhalation of concentrated CBD rich cannabis effects can be felt within minutes and last up to 1 or 2 hours. Both forms are widely available at medical marijuana dispensaries. Despite CBD being sold in health food stores, tobacco shops, on Amazon, etc. Legally recognized state ID is required for purchase.
In spite of the diverse legal status in different states, CBD can be purchased online and delivered legally to all 50 states. The most common means to obtain CBD rich medical marijuana is from a state licensed dispensary. These dispensaries can be found by searching on any number of dispensary directories Leafly, Yelp, etc.
Can Arthritis Sufferers Find Relief with CBD Products?
Like other anti-inflammatory and pain-control drugs, ibuprofen the symptoms of general pain, head pain, joint inflammation or damage, fever. It's also said that CBD oil can promote sounder sleep, reduce inflammation and pain, fight oxidative stress, improve heart health, support weight loss, and protect . Pain Management · News CBD's usefulness as an anti-inflammatory medication is the next most There also are concerns about both the quality of CBD oil being produced and its potential side effects, the experts added.