Pure and Organic CBD & and Hemp Products

Effective medicine provided by mother nature

  • Powerful relaxant

  • Strong painkiller

  • Stress reduction
  • Energy booster

Why CBD?

More and more renowned scientists worldwide publish their researches on the favorable impact of CBD on the human body. Not only does this natural compound deal with physical symptoms, but also it helps with emotional disorders. Distinctly positive results with no side effects make CBD products nothing but a phenomenal success.

This organic product helps cope with:

  • Tight muscles
  • Joint pain
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep disorder

Range of Products

We have created a range of products so you can pick the most convenient ones depending on your needs and likes.

CBD Capsules Morning/Day/Night:

CBD Capsules

These capsules increase the energy level as you fight stress and sleep disorder. Only 1-2 capsules every day with your supplements will help you address fatigue and anxiety and improve your overall state of health.

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CBD Tincture

CBD Tincture

No more muscle tension, joints inflammation and backache with this easy-to-use dropper. Combined with coconut oil, CBD Tincture purifies the body and relieves pain. And the bottle is of such a convenient size that you can always take it with you.

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Pure CBD Freeze

Pure CBD Freeze

Even the most excruciating pain can be dealt with the help of this effective natural CBD-freeze. Once applied on the skin, this product will localize the pain without ever getting into the bloodstream.

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Pure CBD Lotion

Pure CBD Lotion

This lotion offers you multiple advantages. First, it moisturizes the skin to make elastic. And second, it takes care of the inflammation and pain. Coconut oil and Shia butter is extremely beneficial for the health and beauty of your skin.

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THC Strains

Wholesale: (12-18% 1-gram Hemp CBD) Label US Jar Blue

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21.06.2018

Content:

  • Wholesale: (12-18% 1-gram Hemp CBD) Label US Jar Blue
  • Shop CBD Oil Online
  • Crystals999 – 999mg of CBD
  • The Blue Label is a hemp oil extract that has been decarboxylated (heated). No other ingredients are added. It's a thick paste-like substance packaged in a glass . US Hemp Wholesale Gold Label CBD (% CBD). Home/US Hemp US Hemp Wholesale: Blue Label 1-gram Jar (% CBD). No reviews. $ American Shaman also has CBD candy and gummies for your needs. Serving Size: 8 Candy Pieces (20 grams) Per Bag Container: Clear Bag with Header Card Hemp Oil, Natural and Artificial Flavors, FD&C Red 40, and FD&C Blue 1 If you purchased from a wholesale account, or another authorized retailer, you .

    Wholesale: (12-18% 1-gram Hemp CBD) Label US Jar Blue

    We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties.

    A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction -DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids pCBs from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation.

    We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol CBG is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. No significant effect was observed on ambulatory activity or rearing behaviour.

    Evaluation of a reduced nicotine product standard: Joseph; Bangdiwala, Ananta S. Research is needed to guide proposed regulations, including evaluation of consequences to public health.

    This study evaluated how a reduced nicotine product standard might be moderated by and impact cannabis use. Methods Secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial examining the effects of nicotine content in cigarettes in adult daily smokers. Linear regression assessed whether baseline cannabis use moderated behavioral, subjective, or physiological effects of smoking very low nicotine content VLNC versus normal nicotine content NNC cigarettes.

    Repeated measures analysis of associations between nicotine condition and prevalence and frequency of cannabis use was completed using generalized estimating equations GEE. Results Among cannabis users and non-users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported lower nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, biomarkers of nicotine exposure, and craving compared to smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes.

    Non- cannabis using smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes also reported lower smoking dependence motives and had lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and total puff volume versus smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. For cannabis users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported decreased positive affect. Cannabis use did not moderate most effects of VLNC cigarettes. VLNC cigarette use did not impact the prevalence or frequency of cannabis use.

    Discussion Findings provide evidence that nicotine reduction in cigarettes could have beneficial effects on cigarette smoking regardless of cannabis use. Results suggest that transitioning to VLNC cigarettes is unlikely to alter current rates of cannabis use. Moderating effects of and impact on cannabis use.

    Secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial examining the effects of nicotine content in cigarettes in adult daily smokers. Cannabis use did not moderate most of the following effects of VLNC cigarettes: Among cannabis users and non-users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported lower nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, biomarkers of nicotine exposure, and craving compared to smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes.

    Findings provide evidence that nicotine reduction in cigarettes could have beneficial effects on cigarette smoking regardless of cannabis use. The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples.

    To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin Hashish free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol.

    We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from Hashish resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. Anticoagulant effects of a Cannabis extract in an obese rat model. The in vitro effect of the cannabis extract on thrombin activity produced an IC50 value of 9. The study thus shows that Cannabis sativa and the cannabinoids, THC and CBN, display anticoagulant activity and may be useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes in which a hypercoagulable state exists.

    Hourly intake and meal pattern data were recorded and analyzed using one-way analyses of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests. The cannabis extract significantly increased food intake during the first hour of testing at 4. Meal size and duration were unaffected. Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia.

    We have shown previously that the plant cannabinoid cannabidiol CBD elevates intracellular calcium levels in both cultured hippocampal neurones and glia. Here, we investigated whether the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis , Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC alone or in combination with other cannabis constituents can cause similar responses, and whether THC affects the responses induced by CBD.

    A particularly striking observation was the much increased response size and maximal responder rates induced by the mixture of eTHC and eCBD than by the corresponding 1: Acute psychotropic effects of oral cannabis extract with a defined content of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC in healthy volunteers.

    The medical use of cannabinoids is limited mainly by their undesirable effects. Sixteen healthy females participated in this randomized, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, single-dose, balanced 2-way cross-over study. Cannabis extract with standardised Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC content 20 mg or active placebo 5 mg diazepam was administered orally.

    VAS showed significantly elevated fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, and "feeling high" after cannabis as compared to baseline and diazepam. BPRS scores were significantly higher after cannabis intake. Only in one psychomotor test a decrease of psychomotor activity after cannabis was evident. One subject in the cannabis condition experienced severe transient psychotic symptoms.

    Orally administered cannabis produced significant central depressant side-effects compared to diazepam, mostly subjective effects VAS but marginal effects in psychomotor performance in 15 healthy females.

    Regarding the medical use of cannabis , a rigorous benefit-risk analysis and an exact psychiatric assessment before and during treatment are necessary. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress. Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics.

    The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract eCBD in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin STZ -induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia.

    In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione GSH content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin.

    These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor. Optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Ultrasonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from Cannabis sativa L.

    The influence of 3 independent factors time, input power, and methanol concentration was evaluated on the extraction of total phenols TPC , flavonoids TF , ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP and the overall yield.

    A face-centered central composite design was used for statistical modelling of the response data, followed by regression and analysis of variance in order to determine the significance of the model and factors.

    Both the solvent composition and the time significantly affected the extraction while the sonication power had no significant impact on the responses. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental values of the responses, which validated the mathematical model. On comparing the ultrasonic process with the control extraction , noticeably higher values were obtained for each of the responses. Additionally, ultrasound considerably improved the extraction of cannabinoids present in Cannabis.

    Low frequency ultrasound was employed to extract bioactive compounds from the inflorescence part of Cannabis. The responses evaluated were-total phenols, flavonoids, ferric reducing assay and yield.

    The solvent composition and time significantly influenced the extraction process. Appreciably higher extraction of cannabinoids was achieved on sonication against control.

    Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter.

    It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually.

    This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations.

    Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Cannabidiol CBD , another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable.

    The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol 4. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: This study aimed to give a rationale for the employment of phytocannabinoid formulations to treat neuropathic pain.

    It was found that a controlled cannabis extract , containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions terpenes and flavonoids provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone, when tested in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The results also demonstrated that such an antihyperalgesic effect did not involve the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas it was mediated by vanilloid receptors TRPV1.

    The non-psychoactive compound, cannabidiol, is the only component present at a high level in the extract able to bind to this receptor: In addition, the results showed that after chronic oral treatment with cannabis extract the hepatic total content of cytochrome P was strongly inhibited as well as the intestinal P-glycoprotein activity.

    It is suggested that the inhibition of hepatic metabolism determined an increased bioavailability of cannabidiol resulting in a greater effect. However, in the light of the well known antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of terpenes and flavonoids which could significantly contribute to the therapeutic effects, it cannot be excluded that the synergism observed might be achieved also in the absence of the cytochrome P inhibition.

    Cannabinoid receptors in the brain CB 1 take part in modulation of learning, and are particularly important for working and short-term memory. Here, we employed a delayed-matching-to-place DMTP task in the open-field water maze and examined the effects of cannabis plant extracts rich in either Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol Delta 9 -THC , or rich in cannabidiol CBD , on spatial working and short-term memory formation in rats. Delta 9 -THC-rich extracts impaired performance in the memory trial trial 2 of the DMTP task in a dose-dependent but delay-independent manner.

    Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration. Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board-approved study.

    Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose 5. Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. METHODS Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board—approved study.

    The medicinal use of different chemovars and extracts of Cannabis sativa L. Substantial concentrations of cannabinoid acids in non-heated extracts suggest their consideration for total values in chemotype distinction and specifications of herbal drugs and extracts.

    Cell viability reduction in HeLa was more determined by the total cannabinoid content than by the specific cannabinoid profile. Therefore the analysis and labeling of total cannabinoids together with the content of THC and lead cannabinoids are considered essential. The suitability of analytical methods and the range of compound groups summarized in group and ratio markers are discussed regarding plant classification and pharmaceutical specification. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.

    To view the other articles in this issue visit http: Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions.

    Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated.

    This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. Multiple sclerosis and extract of cannabis: Multiple sclerosis MS is associated with chronic symptoms, including muscle stiffness, spasms, pain and insomnia. This double blind, placebo controlled, phase III study had a screening period, a 2 week dose titration phase from 5 mg to a maximum of 25 mg of tetrahydrocannabinol daily and a 10 week maintenance phase.

    The primary outcome measure was a category rating scale CRS measuring patient reported change in muscle stiffness from baseline. Further CRSs assessed body pain, spasms and sleep quality.

    Three validated MS specific patient reported outcome measures assessed aspects of spasticity, physical and psychological impact, and walking ability. The rate of relief from muscle stiffness after 12 weeks was almost twice as high with CE than with placebo Similar results were found after 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and also for all further CRSs. Results from the MS scales supported these findings. The study met its primary objective to demonstrate the superiority of CE over placebo in the treatment of muscle stiffness in MS.

    This was supported by results for secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events in participants treated with CE were consistent with the known side effects of cannabinoids. No new safety concerns were observed. Cannabis Cannabis sativa L. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts.

    The limit of detection range was 0. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties. The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants buds, leaves, roots, and stems. Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations.

    Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis , and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia. To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.

    To assess the effects of cannabinoids cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data.

    We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. We identified eight randomised trials, involving participants, which met our selection criteria. For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction. The plant Cannabis sativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting.

    However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists.

    In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine Cologne, Germany. During about one year subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of patients could be included into the evaluation.

    The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol Marinol was taken by prescription.

    About half of the participants of the survey Biological effects of THC and a lipophilic cannabis extract on normal and insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease, affects about million people world wide. It is characterized by insulin resistance of peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha , which in turn inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation.

    It has been reported that cannabis is used in the treatment of diabetes. A few reports indicate that smoking cannabis can lower blood glucose in diabetics. Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. This study aimed to determine the effect of a lipophilic cannabis extract on adipogenesis, using 3T3-L1 cells, and to measure its effect on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant adipocytes.

    In the adipogenesis studies, differentiated cells were exposed to the extract in the presence and absence of insulin.

    Lipid content and glucose uptake was subsequently measured. Insulin-induced glucose uptake increased, while the rate of adipogenesis decreased with increasing THC concentration. Insulin-resistance was induced using TNF-alpha, exposed to the extract and insulin-induced glucose uptake measured.

    Insulin-induced glucose was increased in these cells after exposure to the extract. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat. Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0.

    Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking.

    In the present study, we tested the effects in rats of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis called "MFF" for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain.

    Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis.

    Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism.

    These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity.

    Recent advances in development of immunoassay methods for marijuana constituents in body fluids provide a rapid means of detection for forensic purposes and a useful research tool for accurate quantitation of dose-response relation.

    Therapeutic possibilities of cannabis , such as reduction in intraocular pressure and bronchodilatation, may stimulate development of synthetic cannabinoid derivatives that meet acceptable standards of safety and effiicacy for treatment of glaucoma and asthma.

    Cannabis use may have harmful short- and long-term impacts on health. Potentially serious short-term effects include predisposition to angina during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Even in healthy subjects, marijuana smoking decreases peak exercise performance, possibly because of its chronotropic effect with achievement of maximum heart rate at reduced work loads.

    Although no conclusive evidence exists for long-term biologic consequences of chronic cannabis use, preliminary evidence, suggesting impairment in pulmonary function and immune responses, requires further investigation with large-scale epidemiologic studies.

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease IBD patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol CBD , here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation.

    Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid DNBS. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    It also reduced intestinal hypermotility at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally in a dose-related fashion or orally only at one dose.

    In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis MS.

    This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to 2.

    Patients in group A started with a drug escalation phase from 15 to maximally 30 mg THC by 5 mg per day if well tolerated, being on active medication for 14 days before starting placebo. Patients in group B started with placebo for seven days, crossed to the active period 14 days and closed with a three-day placebo period active drug dose escalation and placebo sham escalation as in group A. Measures used included daily self-report of spasm frequency and symptoms, Ashworth Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, m timed walk, nine-hole peg test, paced auditory serial addition test PASAT , and the digit span test.

    In the 50 patients included into the intention-to-treat analysis set, there were no statistically significant differences associated with active treatment compared to placebo, but trends in favour of active treatment were seen for spasm frequency, mobility and getting to sleep.

    Minor adverse events were slightly more frequent and severe during active treatment, and toxicity symptoms, which were generally mild, were more pronounced in the active phase.

    A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , e. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta 9 -tetrahydrocanabinoid acid THCa. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha levels in culture supernatants from U macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner.

    This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients.

    Oral cannabis extracts OCEs are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy.

    Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy. The average length of use of OCE was Parental report of OCE use in refractory pediatric epilepsy suggests that some families perceive benefit from this therapy; however, discontinuation of these products is common. Duration appears to be affected by logical factors, such as perceived benefit and side effect profile.

    Surprisingly, families of patients with Dravet syndrome terminated use of OCEs more quickly than patients with other epilepsy syndromes. Results from this study highlight the need for rigorous clinical studies to characterize the efficacy and safety of OCEs, which can inform discussions with patients and families. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy.

    Oral cannabis extracts OCEs have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We report on a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center. A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed. The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome: Additional benefits reported included: Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation, and death.

    Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric patients with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion. We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker.

    Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important.

    The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L.

    A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions.

    Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats.

    Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. This means that the cannabinoid capsules within the Green Label, unlike the other labels, contain all the natural components found in the plant at harvest. Although, we ask that you keep your bottle in a cool, dry place.

    When we discovered how CBD cannabidiol , the non-psychoactive compound in the hemp plant, could be incredibly influential for health, we set out to find the best seed, the best climate, and the best team of cultivation experts to grow our hemp. The result was incredible - Fields upon fields of healthy hemp highly concentrated in CBD!

    Orders are shipped on weekdays via UPS. Orders made on weekends or holidays will be processed on the next business day. Customers from the United States and its territories can expect to receive their order within seven 7 to ten 10 business days; international orders may take four 4 to six 6 weeks, depending on destination. Orders received after 1pm Pacific Time are shipped the next business day.

    Customers are responsible for checking their shipment for damage at time of delivery. Claims for product damaged during shipping must be made within 72 hours of receipt. Our products are legal to ship to all 50 states and US territories. There are currently over 40 countries that allow hemp-based products to be marketed and sold. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    It also reduced intestinal hypermotility at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility.

    Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally in a dose-related fashion or orally only at one dose. In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation.

    Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis MS. This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to 2.

    Patients in group A started with a drug escalation phase from 15 to maximally 30 mg THC by 5 mg per day if well tolerated, being on active medication for 14 days before starting placebo.

    Patients in group B started with placebo for seven days, crossed to the active period 14 days and closed with a three-day placebo period active drug dose escalation and placebo sham escalation as in group A. Measures used included daily self-report of spasm frequency and symptoms, Ashworth Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, m timed walk, nine-hole peg test, paced auditory serial addition test PASAT , and the digit span test.

    In the 50 patients included into the intention-to-treat analysis set, there were no statistically significant differences associated with active treatment compared to placebo, but trends in favour of active treatment were seen for spasm frequency, mobility and getting to sleep.

    Minor adverse events were slightly more frequent and severe during active treatment, and toxicity symptoms, which were generally mild, were more pronounced in the active phase. A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , e. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta 9 -tetrahydrocanabinoid acid THCa. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha levels in culture supernatants from U macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner.

    This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients.

    Oral cannabis extracts OCEs are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy. Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy.

    The average length of use of OCE was Parental report of OCE use in refractory pediatric epilepsy suggests that some families perceive benefit from this therapy; however, discontinuation of these products is common. Duration appears to be affected by logical factors, such as perceived benefit and side effect profile.

    Surprisingly, families of patients with Dravet syndrome terminated use of OCEs more quickly than patients with other epilepsy syndromes. Results from this study highlight the need for rigorous clinical studies to characterize the efficacy and safety of OCEs, which can inform discussions with patients and families. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Oral cannabis extracts OCEs have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy.

    We report on a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center. A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed. The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome: Additional benefits reported included: Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation, and death. Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric patients with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion.

    We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker.

    Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important.

    The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.

    Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions.

    Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count.

    The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. Hempseed Cannabis sativa L. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis EFC protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats.

    We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus.

    Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen. In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze.

    Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats. These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression.

    Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress. At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment recovery dose.

    There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment recovery effect. Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH] levels at low doses.

    But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

    Besides the psychoactive Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis -based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol CBD and of the degradation product cannabinol CBN. The additional determination of these compounds is interesting from forensic and medical points of view because it can be used for further proof of cannabis exposure and because CBD is known to modify the effects of THC.

    The limits of detection were between 0. The method was applied in a prospective pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 10 mg THC alone or together with 5. The maximum plasma concentrations after cannabis extract administration ranged between 1. CBN was not detected. Caused by the strong first-pass metabolism, the concentrations of the metabolites were increased during the first hours after drug administration when compared to literature data for smoking.

    Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines. However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. Adverse effects of cannabis. Cannabis , Cannabis sativa L. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults.

    What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use.

    Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent. The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication.

    The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data.

    It has not been possible to. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation.

    To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation. A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months.

    Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient.

    Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing.

    There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use.

    We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication supportive care in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent.

    Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving participants.

    For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias.

    Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing. Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses.

    The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug.

    Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb marihuana by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary.

    Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy.

    As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

    Cannabidiol is a Cannabis -derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal control mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh.

    In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH inhibitor N-arachidonoylhydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective.

    In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH.

    In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Influence of chronic oral intake of cannabis extract on oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in rat.

    The hydrolysis of acetylcholine was also unchanged. Upon withdrawal of treatment microsomal hydrolytic activity receded to basal levels within 7 days. An appraisal of the hepatic cytochrome P mediated oxidative metabolism revealed approximately three-fold induction of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase AHH metabolizing benzo a pyrene whereas the N-demethylation of aminopyrene was unaffected. These activities were restored to normal when resin administration was discontinued.

    Extract from Fructus cannabis activating calcineurin improved learning and memory in mice with chemical drug-induced dysmnesia. To investigate the effects of extract from Fructus cannabis EFC that can activate calcineurin on learning and memory impairment induced by chemical drugs in mice. Bovine brain calcineurin and calmodulin were isolated from frozen tissues. The activity of calcineurin was assayed using p-nitrophenyl phosphate PNPP as the substrate.

    Step-down type passive avoidance test and water maze were used together to determine the effects of EFC on learning and memory dysfunction. EFC activated calcineurin activity at a concentration range of 0. EFC, given for 7 d, enhanced the spatial resolution of amnesic mice in water maze test.

    EFC overcome amnesia of three stages of memory process at the dose of 0. EFC with an activation role of calcineurin can improve the impaired learning and memory induced by chemical drugs in mice. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users.

    In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. We found pesticides in Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified.

    We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms.

    As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are. The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain.

    In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and: Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords " cannabis addiction," " cannabis dependence," and " cannabis abuse" were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines.

    Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…. Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand.

    She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required.

    This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs. Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given.

    The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis. Inflammatory bowel diseases IBDs include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C.

    The anti-inflammatory activity of C. The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA present in fraction 7 F7 of the extract. However, all fractions of C.

    GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT cell proliferation.

    Also, cannabidiol CBD shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 COX2 and metalloproteinase-9 MMP9 gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue.

    It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis. It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts. The University of Florida Training Reactor UFTR facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a kW power level.

    Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in , this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users.

    Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time.

    The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities. Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabis -induced impairment of learning and memory: Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide.

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze MWM; Morris, [43] test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs.

    Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis.

    Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis -treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam.

    The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose. Allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy in Korea rely mostly on imported allergen extracts.

    However, some allergens that are not important in Western countries are not commercially available, and even the same species of allergen source often displays differences in allergenicity due to amino acid sequence polymorphisms. Therefore, it is essential to prepare allergen extracts that reflect regional characteristics.

    Allergen standardization has been performed since with the support of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Here, we summarize the current status of allergen standardization , focusing on the house dust mite and cockroach. Pollen allergens that are under investigation are also briefly described.

    Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements. Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible.

    This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of Th, U, ,Pu and Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials. Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species.

    Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure.

    The data sets were processed by unsupervised multivariate analysis. Our results suggested that the main difference lies in the ratio of acid to decarboxylated cannabinoids, which dramatically influences the pharmacological activity of CMEs. Minor cannabinoids, alkaloids, and amino acids contributing to this difference are also discussed.

    Notwithstanding the use of a standardised starting plant material, great changes are caused by different extraction procedures. The metabolomics approach is a useful tool for the evaluation of the chemical composition of cannabis extracts. Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis.

    Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7—8 has engaged in medical marijuana use.

    In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis , there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation.

    A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs.

    It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis.

    To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis , organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in has engaged in medical marijuana use.

    Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics.

    It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil. The aims of the study were: The method was then fully validated.

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