Pure and Organic CBD & and Hemp Products

Effective medicine provided by mother nature

  • Powerful relaxant

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Why CBD?

More and more renowned scientists worldwide publish their researches on the favorable impact of CBD on the human body. Not only does this natural compound deal with physical symptoms, but also it helps with emotional disorders. Distinctly positive results with no side effects make CBD products nothing but a phenomenal success.

This organic product helps cope with:

  • Tight muscles
  • Joint pain
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep disorder

Range of Products

We have created a range of products so you can pick the most convenient ones depending on your needs and likes.

CBD Capsules Morning/Day/Night:

CBD Capsules

These capsules increase the energy level as you fight stress and sleep disorder. Only 1-2 capsules every day with your supplements will help you address fatigue and anxiety and improve your overall state of health.

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CBD Tincture

CBD Tincture

No more muscle tension, joints inflammation and backache with this easy-to-use dropper. Combined with coconut oil, CBD Tincture purifies the body and relieves pain. And the bottle is of such a convenient size that you can always take it with you.

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Pure CBD Freeze

Pure CBD Freeze

Even the most excruciating pain can be dealt with the help of this effective natural CBD-freeze. Once applied on the skin, this product will localize the pain without ever getting into the bloodstream.

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Pure CBD Lotion

Pure CBD Lotion

This lotion offers you multiple advantages. First, it moisturizes the skin to make elastic. And second, it takes care of the inflammation and pain. Coconut oil and Shia butter is extremely beneficial for the health and beauty of your skin.

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Double-blind trials in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

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05.07.2018

Content:

  • means are downplaying prioritizing this marijuana THC growers CBD that levels. So, while
  • The Sugar Leaf
  • What is Hemp?
  • Hemp Vs Cannabis for Cannabidiol Oil Infographic – Click to enlarge. There are two Hemp naturally contains very low levels of THC, if any at all, and that's what makes it a great source for many CBD oils. In fact So, this means that marijuana growers are prioritizing THC while downplaying CBD levels. It also means that the growing number of people needlessly forced to enter drug Perfect THC/CBD (and other cannabinoid) ratios that are exactly the same for every . “The Oregon Health Authority is very antagonistic to cannabis, so putting a . While legalizing cannabis on a federal level could indeed put a hold to. What does bringing down our society with pot mean to you? When he and two colleagues wrote “Marijuana is SAFER, so why are we driving people to drink? .. Growing mass murders, soaring drug-related depression, suicide and . Marijuana that contains THC is a low to high level hallucinogenic.

    means are downplaying prioritizing this marijuana THC growers CBD that levels. So, while

    Or that Bavarians with wheat fields once bound for beer are not plotting how to get into the cannabis game. They just need some green of the financial kind, and probably from overseas. However, just setting your eyes on growing is not where the smart money is looking right now. Look for other kinds of plays. Hybrid solutions in other words, that keep you in compliance.

    Cannatech and distribution will be big here. And above all, look for investments, even at the early stage, with at least logical if not clear paths to market that take into consideration that from the medical i. CBD discussions are more complicated than they seem to be at first glance. And that sales numbers are the only thing that counts.

    If passed and signed into law, the STATES Act will authorize states to make their own decisions with respect to making and enforcing cannabis laws related to possession, production, and sale, without federal interference. Firstly, the act would address the glaring discrepancies between state and federal cannabis laws that create a lot of regulatory problems for consumers and industry stakeholders.

    In other words, people who are acting in compliance with state law will no longer be violating federal law. Additionally, the STATES Act would put protections in place for financial institutions seeking to conduct business with the cannabis industry.

    Right now, cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substance Act, which means banks and other financial institutions are at risk of money laundering charges and other sanctions whenever they deal with the marijuana industry. The current threat to banks means that the majority of marijuana businesses are cash-only enterprises, which puts these businesses and their employees at great risk of theft and violence.

    In fact, both the Federal Reserve and law enforcement officials have expressed grave concern over the increase in crime associated with cash that cannot be banked. Therefore, financial institutions in states with legal or decriminalized marijuana are free to work with the cannabis industry without the threat of prosecution.

    Not only would this development make transactions easier, but it would also help protect businesses from being targeted by criminals for having large sums of cash on hand.

    The legalization of cannabis across Canada has resulted in a multi-billion dollar industry. Canadian marijuana firms are raising billions of dollars from public capital markets and institutional investors, which is money that the United States cannabis industry is likely to see once financial institutions feel safe to transact with marijuana businesses.

    Big-name Canadian cannabis businesses are already setting their sights on the U. Other prominent cannabis investors who are optimistic about the investment promise the bill holds include president of Acreage Holdings George Allen who stated: But most lawmakers agree that the awkward dual legal status of cannabis has gone on too long, and they will vote in to pass the act to protect U.

    The bill will not only allow cannabusinesses to bank, but it will also spark a big bang in terms of investment. We will see a frenzy of activity and attention when the first institutional investors join the fray. In addition to the aforementioned solutions and implications for cannabis stakeholders, there are several other changes, both good and bad, worth noting that will occur if the STATES Act becomes a law. On a positive note, industrial hemp will no longer be considered cannabis.

    If and when hemp is no longer considered cannabis, the significant production barriers it currently faces from being associated with the drug will be lifted, resulting in a lot of economic potential. The bad news is, cannabis will still be illegal at the federal level because the Drug Enforcement Administration refuses to remove its Schedule I classification. The STATES Act, a bipartisan bill that Congress is expected to pass into law, is a major step forward for cannabis legalization and the entire cannabis industry.

    It will allow financial institutions to transact with marijuana businesses without fear of federal prosecution, which not only makes the cannabis industry safer by reducing criminal threats to cash-only businesses but opens the door to massive financial opportunities for investors.

    Europe as a medical cannabis market is opening in That is an easy prediction to make given all that is afoot. The European Parliament is debating the issue. That in itself is also pushing the UN. Individual countries across Europe have begun to make declarations, even if not so definitive as Luxembourg see Switzerland, Spain and Greece that major reform is on the roadmap over the next five years.

    Even the long-stalled German cultivation drama appears to be headed into the curtain call of its first act this spring. Not to mention what the Brexiting UK might do, in the throws of extremis and when access to imported basic food and medicine is now absolutely thrown into doubt. There are many, many optimistic signs afoot from the viewpoint of the cannabis industry and investors, in other words, even for not always positive reasons, that Europe is budding and this is a banner year. For all the optimism, however, there are issues that the often giddy business analysts and mainstream media in any language are often NOT covering.

    And this too will also begin to show up, dramatically, starting with the ever important metric of patient numbers. It is also precisely the kind of thing that U. That includes producers from all states in the U.

    Luxembourg is a tiny country. Looking to Canada for an example of how to transition to a recreational discussion is also at least a two year time period that will not end until at the earliest. California state law on privacy to banking is also not robust enough for central European if not British bankers who still need passporting and trusted nation status. Want to hit coffee shops in Europe? Best place is still Amsterdam, and look what a mess that has turned out to be. Barcelona is Spanish Boulder.

    Federal recreational reform, no matter now introduced as bills in several federal legislatures across the Eurozone, is at least five years off — and in most places. And that is what counts. Where patients and doctors have reached compromises in prescription and approvals , this has started to show up in the numbers. But this is absolutely slow going over rough territory.

    Here are some sobering facts. The average patient in Germany read Europe and the UK is sick, poor, and has to battle through doctor approvals, doctor error and an extreme reluctance to cover the drug.

    It is classified in Germany for example although this is essentially true across Europe , as a drug of last resort, an off-label medication for every condition except MS, and a narcotic.

    German pharmacies are also a part of the equation in a way that is forcing everyone to up if not change their game. Entering Europe with a CBD play is also not for the faint of heart. It is clearly coming, but that, like McDonalds, will have to find its entry point in the market. At least until some big network security, banking, insurance and other issues are ironed out. Central to all of these problems is understanding of a new law here in the EU that North America is just hearing about.

    Google just got hit in France. It also applies to telco. And certainly no Uber delivery via Amazon webstore. In Germany at least, such trips and deliveries must happen by regulated, union driven service. From the perspective of investors, in other words, the European market is absolutely ripening with possibilities. However, there are many minefields in such newly opened battlegrounds because that is what the regulatory environment looks like on the financial, security and overall regulatory front.

    And not always alot of accurate information. Bottom line on Europe? Do your normal risk analysis, and find the right technical and legal help. Being prescribed pot by a doctor back in the ancient times was not exactly a rarity. It was also included in the U. Since the plant has been hailed for its medicinal potential, ignorantly stuffing it into the same category as addictive and dangerous illicit substances — like heroin and LSD — is pretty barbaric.

    In September of last year, the U. This allowed for the sale of the first non synthetic, cannabis-derived medicine to gain federal approval — Epidiolex. It was created by a company called GW Pharmaceuticals. GW is based in the United Kingdom, where medical cannabis legalization has also spread to. Are you thinking about introducing cannabis into your life? After considering the below science-backed benefits of cannabis and its derivatives, e.

    Numerous studies have cited the pain-relieving benefits of cannabis for chronic pain. Indica strains tend to be stronger painkillers than sativa strains. Combining the psychoactive compound THC with the non-psychoactive compound CBD will stimulate a synergistic effect for long-lasting relief.

    Vaping cannabis oil or consuming infused edibles could help to relieve anxiety and depression, with this study stating how low doses of THC proved more effective at promoting relaxation.

    Contrary to what you might think, cannabis has the potential to treat and prevent psychosis. A popular treatment for athletes seeking relief from inflammation caused by sports injuries, cannabis boasts anti-inflammatory effects that make it an ideal treatment for people who suffer from arthritis.

    Cannabis-derived medicines — like Epidiolex — are helping to relieve seizures caused by severe forms of epilepsy in children, including Dravet syndrome and lennox-gastaut. A research paper from the American Alliance for Medical Cannabis AAMC purported that cannabis can stabilize blood sugars, provide neuroprotective effects, improve circulation, reduce blood pressure and cholesterol, and relieve arterial inflammation experienced by people with diabetes.

    A separate study revealed a decreased prevalence of diabetes amongst cannabis consumers. Addictive substances, like opioids e. Cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy will usually experience nausea and vomiting. Lack of appetite and weight loss are also two side effects experienced by people with AIDS.

    One in four Americans develop insomnia every year. The study assessed medical cannabis administration sessions from people suffering with insomnia. Even in its purest form, the plant can deliver the human body with a wallop of natural goodness.

    Heck, our bodies are even equipped with something called an endocannabinoid system ECS that triggers various therapeutic responses when exposed to cannabinoids! The post Clearing the Smoke: Many stakeholders in the cannabis and alcohol industries are eager to see how and if marijuana legalization will impact alcohol consumption.

    Due to cannabis only recently becoming more accessible, the degree to which it affects alcohol use is still uncertain, but early studies and observations suggest that many people are reducing their alcohol intake in favor of marijuana consumption. Rather than survey consumers, the study used alcohol data from the Nielsen Retail Scanner for 90 alcohol chain stores between The researchers opted for this data in lieu of surveys because people tend not to be truthful about their frequency and amount of alcohol intake.

    Furthermore, the working paper considered socioeconomic status as that can impact how much alcohol various populations consume. The study concluded that alcohol and cannabis are often substitutes for one another and, when presented with the option to consume marijuana, many alcohol users will forgo alcohol in favor of cannabis.

    However, the fact that the working paper addressed medical cannabis rather than recreational cannabis creates some questions about whether recreational cannabis results in a similar reduction in alcohol use. Alcohol tax revenues in Washington and Colorado, legal recreational states, have remained relatively stable since recreational use became legal in That being said, because legal recreational marijuana is so new, there are many variables that have yet to be studied with respect to the relationship between cannabis and alcohol.

    In addition to a reduction in alcohol sales, it helps to look at how overall cannabis sales compare to alcohol.

    These developments have raised the alarm for alcohol businesses. Like most aspects of the cannabis industry, there needs to be more research to determine how, exactly, the increased accessibility and legality of cannabis will affect alcohol consumption.

    However, early research and observations suggest that the accessibility of medical and recreational marijuana reduces consumer interest in alcohol, which is causing some alcohol companies to invest in the marijuana industry while others are strategizing for how to better combat the competition. Cannabis is a hot topic nowadays. Here we are in and the plant has been legalized for medical use in 33 U. Just a small portion of people will develop CHS; particularly those who consume cannabis in copious amounts and have done so for many years.

    Daily users may also be affected. CHS is somewhat of a mystery condition, since it occurs by an unknown mechanism, according to this study. What we do know, however, is that three main cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant may trigger opposing effects on the gastrointestinal tract emesis response.

    In simple terms, nausea is the feeling of sickness that precedes emesis. When emesis occurs, the contents of the stomach may be expelled from the GI tract via the upper esophageal sphincter. Repeated bouts of vomiting is a common symptom of CHS. As a newly discovered unwanted side effect of cannabis consumption, CHS is not a hot topic amongst healthcare providers.

    This is especially true in places that have not legalized the plant for medicinal use. Visiting a gastroenterologist for a diagnosis is recommended. He or she may carry out the following tests to determine a diagnosis:.

    Refraining from cannabis consumption completely is the first approach to tackling CHS. For frequent users, drug rehabilitation programs may come in handy. If symptoms do not subside, your healthcare provider must conduct further testing to determine a cause for vomiting and nausea. Ongoing studies are required to ascertain precisely what the prevalence of this disease is.

    In addition to this, evidence is required to determine what additional treatments may be needed, aside from discontinued cannabis use. The post Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: The Benzinga Cannabis Capital Conference is among the largest gatherings of cannabis entrepreneurs and investors in North America.

    Entrepreneurs, executives and dealmakers have a unique opportunity to tell their story, in their own words, to this targeted audience. Viewers will see breaking news, exclusive coverage and original programming profiling the people, companies and investments shaping the industry.

    CFN Media is a leading agency and digital financial media network dedicated to the cannabis industry. We help private, pre-public and public cannabis companies in the US and Canada attract capital, investors and media attention. In late December, the news that the Austrian Minister of Health ordered businesses to immediately stop selling CBD infused food and cosmetics is a sign that this much heretofore misunderstood if not muted discussion is very much in the room not only in Austria , but also across Europe.

    The commercial CBD revolution has certainly hit the continent since the German medical market began to enter legitimacy in March However, as of the end of , for all the exciting advancements logged over the last two years see Switzerland in particular , there are also large and looming clouds on the horizon.

    The fact that this move comes despite no new legislation to trigger it domestically is also a sign of how widespread this conversation actually is at the policy level across Europe, despite many attempts to downplay its significance by the burgeoning cannabis industry.

    While Austrian products made from the whole plant were not affected by the new decision, every extract and product which contains the same is.

    As a result, all CBD extract-containing products are now in the crosshairs of this debate. Further, the fact that in Austria, cosmetics are on the table too a new and disturbing wrinkle for the industry is also a sign that policy is catching up with a scientific understanding of delivery methods. Cannabinoids of course, can be absorbed through the skin. However this development is hardly a surprise.

    The same issue also showed up in Spain in , with the police literally raiding shops and taking product off of shelves. The new hard line taken in Austria means that this debate will probably show up in other places as the industry becomes large enough to actually regulate.

    And cannatech increasingly shows up across a spectrum of products — starting with delivery methods and beverages. The fact that a commercialized industry had also already established itself in Austria, with an annual estimated industry revenue of million euros last year is also a direct hit not only to the Austrian tax-paying, legitimate CBD business sector but far beyond it.

    Namely, this is actually a direct attack on the same argument that is being used to advance reform in other places. Reform, regulate and tax, in other words, might be a simple and effective slogan exported from the U. On the ground in Europe, however, this has already hit snags. So far, at least, the success of the Swiss CBD market over the last two years, has certainly driven the discussion other places because of the inherent tax value of the cannabinoid market to the government.

    In , however, two years after this first began to bloom, the brakes are clearly being applied from the perspective of consumer safety. While the concept is essentially unheard of in the U. A novel food, under European regulation, is a food that has no significant history of consumption in the EU prior to 15 May, That means that all things cannabinoid, are, by definition, affected.

    Further, this means that businesses must submit time consuming and expensive applications in every European country they plan to sell in. And here is the biggest issue. While CBD oil is no longer prohibited, extracts are a very different animal. And the fight is likely to be, as a result, drawn out until European-wide policy on the same is finally amended. Bottom line for all things CBD extract laden?

    Until CBD is registered in the Novel Food catalogue, consumption of anything with an extract from food and beverages to supplements , the safest position for producers is to focus on products that are external use only. And even here, because cannabinoids can be absorbed by the skin, as in Austria, this is now dodgy territory for just about everyone. And just about everywhere. With CBD producers looking for cross European distribution, this also means that issues like licensing and labelling costs are likely to become a major impediment to the same.

    Switzerland is the only country on the continent where this discussion has gone smoothly and they are not in the EU. Just like medicinal cannabis, in other words, major licensing, labelling and registration issues loom large. Not to mention a patchwork of changing legislation across individual countries that can be independently interpreted by sovereign governments.

    Further, and this is also another new twist to business development long term, will clearly be defined less by the cannabis legalization discussion and more by consumer and patient regulation far beyond it.

    Sure, big-name companies like Canopy Growth Corp. Since CBD-rich cannabis oil can be derived from both the cannabis and hemp plants — not to mention the fact that the Hemp Farm Bill was recently passed — small business owners have the option of creating potent oils from either plant.

    The oil that can be extracted from the cannabis plant is suitable for a broad scope of therapeutic treatments. Moreover, the primary cannabinoids contained in cannabis — CBD cannabidiol and THC tetrahydrocannabinol — leave the healthy cells intact, while they work on attacking the cancerous ones. Aside from its growing use in cancer care , cannabis oil may also be used to treat insomnia, headache, muscle pain, glaucoma, anxiety and arthritis.

    Hemp grows with no more than 0. Once inhaled, the vapor is delivered to the lungs, where cannabinoids are absorbed through the alveoli before entering the bloodstream. Cannabis oil can also be infused into a plethora of other products, therefore a small scale business will not be limited to the cannabis-vaping demographic.

    An important bill was passed by the Senate on the 11th day of December, last year. Numerous expenditures that were included in the Agricultural Act of were reauthorized under the passing of the bill.

    Quite rightly so, too. Hemp contains mere traces of THC and therefore will not produce psychoactive effects. As an increasing number of farmers gain permission to cultivate hemp across the U. It has taken a few years for cannabis reform to begin to enter Asia.

    However, momentum is clearly picking up. As such, the country may well become the third country in the world after Uruguay and Canada to fully legalize the drug although Luxembourg might yet pip the Ozzies to the post.

    The news is also clearly already having a domino effect regionally and was not the only intriguing canna news out of Asia in December. It is also not expected that the market here will liberalize dramatically. The big question that still remains? When will China move? The great, green slumbering giant has begun to allow farmers to produce hemp industrially again.

    No matter what its Asian neighbours do, this one country, with low labour costs and now in a trade war with the U. Asia is widely heralded as the birthplace of medical cannabis.

    The history of the drug here stretches back millennia, and its use was documented and incorporated into medical texts. It is also thought that the Scythians, travelling bands of nomadic warriors, carried use and knowledge of the drug through Europe. During the 19 th century, the drug was commoditized, like tea, by the British East India Company in both China and India.

    In the 20 th century, of course, communist anti-drug policies in China tended to follow those in the West, with one critical difference. Drug crimes in this part of the world became associated with even harsher punishments — including the death penalty. Alone in Asian countries, at least for now, Thailand appears to be ready to step into the export market.

    Now, it appears that the government, like many others around the world, wants to cash in on the multibillion global medical market now exploding in the rest of the world along with reducing an exploding prison population. That said, recreational users will still face harsh penalties. This is also likely, as a result, to be one of the most complicated places for foreign companies to obtain licenses for production if not ex-im permission.

    Added to that, of course, is the likelihood of protectionist measures implemented along with reform, as is likely in Thailand, where the market will be highly protected to preserve both domestic ownership and the benefit to the economy of the same. It is also highly likely that any foreign investment in such markets, as they liberalize, will be required to partner with local producers.

    Regardless, it is clear as dawns that no part of the world is immune to cannabis reform. The Green Revolution is, five years after market start in Colorado, truly global. The recent passage of the Farm Bill as well as sweeping changes across the most populated countries on earth are but two of the many reasons for this optimism.

    This comes off the heels of big change in , when adult-use was implemented in the largest global consumer market California as well as the largest global capital market Canada. We are well on our way to full federal legalization and continue to expect a nationwide resolution to the state-federal conflict by Five Things To Watch, we anticipated moves towards banking and tax resolution, Canadian investment by big liquor and tobacco, a swing in the Midterm elections and volatility in California cannabis pricing.

    For , we are pleased to see a legitimate pathway towards banking and tax resolution along with a move towards normalization in Canadian markets. Pricing continues to exhibit wide spreads, a trend we expect to continue and perhaps even intensify. Additionally, our hemp industry will receive a dual octane boost from CBD making its debut in drug and grocery stores as well as from the December 20th, passage of the Farm Bill.

    Lastly, a movement not to be missed includes one that affects nearly three billion humans. The grass is greener where you water it The government has waged a trillion-dollar war on unarmed plants for eight decades and we are pleased to report an impending plant victory. Five things to watch for in When enacted, the impact on the cannabis industry will be enormously positive.

    With the threat of federal action eliminated, increased inflows of investor capital will impact asset values while fueling further growth and innovation. President Trump signed the Farm Bill into law on December 20th, In doing so, he changed cannabis federal classification for the first time since , permanently removed the federal ban on industrial hemp and paved the way to Make America Hemp Again.

    It is difficult to overstate the positive impact that full-scale industrial hemp production will have on the US economy. The hemp market may well exceed the cannabis market as regulation, information and transparency work to drive greater adoption. For farmers and hemp-related businesses, the opportunities are unprecedented. For investors, this translates to significant returns in an industry that now has a legal pathway to grow at a rapid pace. While Canadian capital markets remain the richest and deepest in the cannabis world, expect to see a normalization of perspective as addressable market realities emerge from the clouds of optimistic exuberance.

    The biggest Canadian companies have large multi-national presence on their capitalization tables, a trend that will perhaps accelerate as valuations continue their justifiable correction and as big food, pharma, liquor, tobacco and agriculture companies continue their justifiable cannabis march. Additional markets will emerge to help smooth the path towards cannabis capital optimization.

    While regional pricing inconsistencies exist in many agricultural products, few spreads are as wide as those currently seen in biomass, isolate and distillate. Oregon and Washington remain the cheapest states, while North Dakota and Virginia are amongst the most expensive. This imbalance is driven by the recent and steady trend of state-regulated surplus.

    Restrictive regulatory structures contrive a distribution system rather than allowing market economics to flourish and, along with disparate investment in parts of the supply chain, lead to supply imbalances. Oversupply is evidenced in Colorado, Washington and Oregon, while supply shortages have been rampant in Nevada and Massachusetts. Expect this trend to continue with California poised to become the next oversupply example.

    The predominance of these patents indicates the pace of evolution in pharmaceutical science and may offer valuable lessons along the evolutionary path of Western industry. As our acceptance of this plant grows, investors and entrepreneurs alike are well-served to watch this not so sleepy giant. As cannabis traverses the path to global trade, one of the biggest economic winners will be China. Indian cannabis use has been widely documented and dates back to 2, BC, where it was used medicinally and as an offering to Lord Shiva.

    Cannabis was only banned in with the passage of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and, with recent approval for legal cannabis cultivation accorded to IIM Indian Institute of Management , the movement towards legalization is under way. The Asian cannabis legalization movement was bolstered by the recent passage of medical laws in South Korea and Thailand. Every third human is governed by the laws of these four countries, and at over 2.

    We remain optimistic around impending and positive change for the industry through and beyond. The cannabis sector has quickly emerged as an alternative asset class with low portfolio correlation and high demand inelasticity, and as such will continue to capture its rightful place in any well-diversified, impact-oriented investment portfolio.

    Forget the hemp reform promised by the federal Farm Bill for a second, although that is a tall order. The bill sets national agricultural, nutritional, conservation and forestry policy for the country twice a decade.

    Allowing hemp to be grown legally, nationally, in every state for the first time since the Great Depression is certainly a forward victory long in the making. However that is, from a cannabinoid perspective, just one small step. Concurrently there is also another federal initiative on the table now along with strategy to pass it that is actually far more momentous for cannabis should it actually move through the legislature as intended.

    Senator Cory Gardner, a Republican Senator from Colorado, plans to speed up critical reforms in cannabis banking this week and further do so in a way designed to speed passage. The cannabis industry is highly supportive. Recreational reform may have come to many U. One thing however that has not budged is banking services. Despite repeated attempts to reform the same at the federal level in Congress. That is the simple news. In Senate speak, here is the high pitch.

    This is a common legislative move, frequently also seen at the end of biannual legislative sessions. The legislation, finally, fixes both the tax and banking problems that have plagued the industry for the last four years while leaving the rescheduling issue alone.

    Namely, it allows cannabis businesses to legally open bank accounts in states where either medical or recreational reform has occurred. It would also exempt retailers from federal prosecution while still keeping cannabis a Schedule I drug. The reason that everyone is getting so excited about this strategy however, is that Gardner intends not to push for an up or down vote on this legislation, but rather include it in a prison reform bill that both the Republican Senate leadership and President Donald Trump want to prioritize.

    The First Step Act is a sweeping criminal justice reform bill that allows non-violent federal prisoners to be released from prison more quickly and earn the right to enter society again through a defined set of steps intended to reduce recidivism. Presumably the revenue gathered by both the states and federal government via efficient controlling and levy of both federal and state taxes will more than pay for the same. There is still no guarantee that this strategy will work.

    A similar version has to pass in the House and there is no guarantee that it will. If it does not, once both Senate and House versions of the First Step Act pass, the differences will have to be rectified in conference committee. Or even watered down. That said, it is also clear that creative cannabis reform has finally hit the federal discussion on Capitol Hill, even if imperfect in multiple ways. And even if this creative attempt goes down in flames, there is no reason to believe that such efforts will go away, particularly spurred on in a democratically controlled House starting next year.

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that has been directly linked to many chronic health conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, and liver disease. While cannabis has been shown to be much less harmful, and a potential alcohol-substitute, recreational consumption was only recently legalized with the passage of the Cannabis Act in October , and it still faces much heavier-handed regulation than the alcohol industry.

    A new white paper released by Hill Street Beverage Co. These savings would come from lower health care, criminal justice, and lost productivity costs.

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that has been linked to many chronic health conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, and liver disease, while cannabis has far fewer side effects and perhaps even some benefits. By repackaging cannabis into more familiar beverage formats, it could replace a meaningful amount of alcohol consumption and improve public health. While cannabis edibles are a problem with youth, adult-format beverages like beer, wine, and cocktails have already established an understanding that substances are available for purchasing at existing and reputable licensed outlets with strict guidelines.

    This means that demand could be roughly In addition to the lower costs, the company estimates that there could be 25, fewer hospital visits from overconsumption of alcohol and a seven percent reduction in violent crimes that are fueled by alcohol.

    The key is ensuring that consumers have an easy-to-access and easy-to-understand alternative on the shelves that they can purchase and consume. Massachusetts has finally gone green.

    It was a day met with enthusiasm, despite cold and rainy conditions, with thousands of people waiting hours in line for hours in order to be among the first in the state to buy marijuana legally.

    At the front of the line Tuesday morning was none other than the Mayor of the City himself, David Narkewicz, who welcomed recreational sales with open arms. The first few days of sales have gone smoothly, with no system outages or product shortages.

    The rest of the East Coast is watching what happens in Massachusetts closely, as the market is expected to influence others throughout the region. Vermont and Maine recently legalized adult-use cannabis but are still developing regulations. While The Bay State has been slow to start sales, the Cannabis Control Commission has approved an additional 20 licenses with more applications being submitted daily. Cannabis stocks soared higher after a solid turnaround during the mid-term elections and the sudden departure of Jeff Sessions as Attorney General.

    Michigan voters approved a ballot measure to legalize the recreational use of cannabis and two other states—Utah and Missouri—endorsed medical cannabis laws. While North Dakota legalized medical cannabis back in , voters opted not to legalize adult-use cannabis during the latest midterm. With these new additions, 33 states have legalized some form of cannabis and adult-use cannabis laws are in effect across ten states and the District of Columbia.

    The catch is that cannabis possession, selling, or use remains illegal under federal laws since no such measures have passed at the highest levels. In the past, the midwest has been the most conservative when it comes to drug laws and the hope is that Michigan helps pave the way toward a better understanding. Attorney General Jeff Sessions resigned following the midterm elections.

    Earlier this year, Sessions nixed Obama-era rules designed to let states determine the legality of cannabis, which caused widespread confusion throughout the industry. He also instructed the Department of Justice to aggressively prosecute drug offenses, saying that drugs are a gateway to violence.

    Trump has been an on again, off again advocate of cannabis, but the true legal future will be determined by the next appointee.

    The post Cannabis Rising: With federal legalization a near-term possibility , the market could soon be dominated by so-called Big Cannabis—likely tobacco companies moving into the space and growing commoditized products leveraging their existing infrastructure. Some cannabis cultivators aim to protect themselves from these changes by growing high-quality, niche strains.

    The approach mirrors the strategy that the Champagne appellation has taken to protect French Champagne from copycats. The state senate passed a bill last year requiring the Department of Food and Agriculture to come up with a process where licensed cultivators could establish appellations of standards, practices, and varietals applicable to cannabis grown in a certain geographic area by In essence, this paves the way for cannabis to be labeled similar to the wine industry rather than being sold as a commodity—like a mass market beer.

    The science behind craft cannabis is still catching up after years of prohibition, but there are early signs that the same strain of cannabis could have different attributes depending on the climate and other growing conditions. The conference features more than thought leaders and policy experts, 3, cannabis business leaders, and 60, sq.

    At the conference, cannabis executives can learn everything from packaging best practices to craft cannabis to environmentally-sustainable production. It has long been known medical cannabis helps with pain management.

    From acute sharp short term pain, to chronic, deeper more long lasting pain, multiple studies have shown cannabis can replace opioids for pain management and help suffering patients live more normal lives. As cannabis becomes more main stream in the US, medical cannabis is replacing opioids for pain management. There are thirty states with medical cannabis programs, more than a handful of states with high CBD cannabis laws and eight states with adult use cannabis, opening Cannabinoid medication access to a record number of Americans.

    True Leaf operates seventeen dispensaries across the state of Florida, and serves 80, registered patients. No one else has their finger on the pulse of Florida medical cannabis more than Kim Rivers. Kim Rivers goes on to say True Leaf will lobby the Florida legislature to make medical cannabis an easier choice for patients with pain management issues. The researchers noticed a fourteen percent reduction in opioid prescriptions in states with easy access to medical cannabis.

    This, they estimate, adds up to about 3. Another study looked at data from Medicaid and found similar results. Other studies have shown encouraging results with a twenty-five percent decrease in opiate overdoses in states with easy access to medical cannabis.

    In addition, baby boomers and seniors are using medical cannabis as replacements for opioids for pain management in record numbers. Seniors and boomers are learning that conditions like osteo-arthritis and other painful geriatric diseases are no match for Cannabinoid medicines, despite the higher cost.

    Cannabinoids are the unique compounds found in the cannabis plant. The two most common Cannabinoids cannabidiol CBD and Tetrahydrocannabinol THC have been shown in multiple studies to be powerful pain relieving compounds. The two compounds work much in the same way by dampening pain receptors throughout the body and reducing inflammation. These receptors make up the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is a group of cells that help bring balance to the body.

    For decades patients suffering from pain who wanted to use cannabis had to risk arrest for cannabis possession, or settle for more addictive opioid medications. Now with laws loosening, more and more people are finding medical cannabis can replace opioids for pain management.

    Most notably the loudest objections are coming from France, which has yet to move on cannabis reform in general. According to the Financial Times in , at least, Albania produces the largest amount of illegal cannabis in any country on the continent.

    This in turn, serves as financing for organized crime that, according to authorities, seeps into Europe. Does it smell suspiciously like a debate about both medical use and broader recreational reform on a European level that is frequently going off the rails these days for no reason?

    Yes, to both questions. Especially given the current state of cannabis production gearing up all over the Mediterranean, from Spain in the west, to Greece and Malta further east.

    Not to mention what is going on in Macedonia and other border EU countries. Cheaper labour markets ringing the EU are beginning to wake up to the entire cannabis economy question.

    The EU, at the Brussels level is not copacetic about regional cannabis reform and is well aware of what is going on in an emerging market. And in the meantime, member states, particularly those who have not moved on national reform at all, are using cannabis as a convenient political lever. What this situation really demonstrates is how political the cannabis debate really is right now in Europe. And how indicative of the ducking and dodging if not the size and number of political hoops those in the market at this point, have had to jump through so far.

    Regardless of both the immediate and long term impact on the Albanian situation, the forces of reform are afoot now at a regional not just a country level, in Europe.

    Expect the situation for the next several years to be fluid at a regional level while different sovereign countries adjust to a world of both still relatively open borders and legalizing cannabis. This is exacerbated right now as the larger, legal Canadian LPs in particular, begin cultivation operations all over the continent and are setting up sophisticated distribution networks which span multiple countries albeit with Germany still mostly as their largest destination point.

    It is also not going unnoticed that relatively poorer states with lower labour costs, i. See the situation in Greece. Add the additional political tensions of Brexit where a still supposedly departing UK has now rescheduled the drug to a Schedule II, starting this month , and the topic of the great green plant is clearly causing headaches in Brussels that are not going to abate until cannabis legalization, finally, of some kind, is implemented at a regional economic bloc level.

    In the meantime, the poorer countries of the region, hoping to play the cannabis card, as well as the companies now looking to exploit such opportunities, are going to have to engage in a continual political and lobbying game to make sure their newly found rights do not go up in smoke along with newly hatched cultivation and export dreams.

    The company soft launched the studio earlier this year, filming exclusive client interviews and early episodes of the CFN Weekly Show. The new studio features green screen technology and a configurable set, which makes it easy for clients to choose a look-and-feel that best suits their vision and brand. The digital media programs connect companies directly with their target audiences, including individual and institutional investors and national media.

    For more information about becoming a client, learn more about our programs or contact us. Viewers will see breaking news, exclusive coverage and original programming involving the people, companies and investments shaping the space. The conference brings together the best and brightest international cannabis entrepreneurs, thought leaders, investors, and innovators, with over exhibitors, 50 panels, speakers, an investment symposium, and a career fair.

    Organizers expect more than 4, cannabis industry personnel to attend. See the event schedule for a complete list of panel topics and register now to secure the best conference prices! TGDR , one of two cannabis companies on the Israeli stock exchange, has just made an aggressive move into the German medical cannabis market. The German company has a distribution network of pharmacies.

    Together has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding to acquire The other details on the German company remain sparse.

    Together Cannabis is not a well-known company outside of Israel, but if they keep up their current pace, that appears to be about to change. Earlier in the year, the company announced plans to create a grow area of 10 hectares 25 acres in an unnamed country outside of Israel earlier this year.

    The company is coming into a highly price sensitive market in Europe. In Europe, they intend to sell product for about euros a gram, to pharmacies direct. That price, according to bid documents has to be well under 7 euros a gram wholesale and to the government. The last time around, the news about the German bid hopefuls centered on the Canadians.

    This time that already is not the case. It is also clear that Together would be well-placed to apply, with a footprint and profile that puts it well within the parameters of the German bid. There are certainly more Jews in Germany these days, coming here for business reasons, than at any other time since WWII.

    Mainstream German supermarkets are even starting to stock whole specialty sections with kosher food. Israeli interest in particular in the German cannabis market has been high for at least several years, although international complications see the continued ban worked out between Donald Trump and Benjamin Netanyahu and local goofs see the issuance of the second tender have slowed this down on a number of occasions.

    It is widely rumoured at this point that the export ban in Israel is going to be lifted within the next year. Some have even suggested that the export ban could be abolished by the time the German government bid deadline is due in October, although that is very unlikely. And in the meantime, firms like Together are establishing both cultivation and distribution networks on their own, outside of Israel.

    This is not the first of its kind deal or series of them but it certainly is the largest of its kind. Israeli firms like Together are likely to impact the European, if not Canadian market in several ways. The first is that they are absolutely driven by mind-set, beyond the market, to provide cheap, high-grade cannabis globally. This is in direct contrast with trends coming out of the Canadian market, where producers are starting to make noises about actually raising prices presumably to meet unstoppable demand.

    The second is that the pace of European cannabis cultivation is likely to increase dramatically. Israeli firms have been establishing cultivation sites in places like Eastern Europe and Greece for the better part of the last 18 months.

    Several years from now, in other words, firms like Together could well shift the balance if not the bulk of where medical cannabis comes from — even in Europe — and certainly beyond it.

    CalCannabis is a division of the California Department of Food and Agriculture that provides cultivation licensing and regulation to commercial California cannabis cultivators. The division has three branches: Each of the aforementioned branches manages different cultivation scenarios and companies. The Bureau of Cannabis Control is housed within the Department of Consumer affairs and licenses testing labs, distributors, retailers, and microbusinesses.

    The CalCannabis Cultivation Licensing branch is housed within the Department of Food and Agriculture and licenses cannabis cultivators while overseeing the track-and-trace system. Finally, the Manufactured Cannabis Safety branch is housed within the Department of Public Health and licenses manufacturers of cannabis products such as edibles and topicals.

    The California Cannabis Track-and-Trace CCTT system records cannabis inventory and movement through the entire commercial supply chain—from seed to sale—throughout California. Temporary cannabis licenses are not required to use the system and do not receive access to it. Still, the proposed regulations provide insight into the general rules and regulations cultivators will likely need to adhere to. Non-manufactured products are defined in the regulations as dried flower, shake, leaf, and pre-rolls intended for sale to medical cannabis patients.

    Note that prices only include the initial application fee; the annual license fees, which are required for all licenses, are significantly higher and must be paid each year.

    Similarly to manufacturing, retail, distribution, and transportation licenses, applicants for a cultivation license must submit background information on all owners. Each owner must undergo a criminal background check; however, a criminal history does not prevent owners from receiving licensure unless their history is substantially related to cannabis cultivation and sale. Cultivation sites must not be closer than a foot radius from a school for approval. Because local regulations are variable and evolving, cultivators are encouraged to secure all necessary local permits and documentation before applying for licensure.

    The DFA is not expected to restrict the number of cultivation licenses a person can hold provided the total licensed canopy does not exceed four acres. The MoneyShow will be coming to Toronto on September , at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, where more than 50 experts will come together to provide unbiased perspectives, keen insights, and actionable recommendations for portfolio management over the coming year.

    Investors can register to attend the event for free by visiting www. In addition, investors will have an opportunity to hear from leading experts in fixed income, options, bond markets, commodities, dividend-focused investments, and estate planning. The MoneyShow has been a leading force behind empowering individual investors since , gathering qualified traders, investors, and financial advisors, along with top financial experts, business, and media professionals.

    For more information about the MoneyShow Toronto, visit their website at www. Starting on October 17, consumers 19 and older will be able to purchase cannabis via an online retail platform provided by the Ontario Cannabis Store.

    The OCS online channel will include a verification system that will ensure safe at-home delivery for cannabis products. Supply agreements with authorized Health Canada producers were achieved through a competitive process, resulting in a range of cannabis products and size formats among the categories of dried flower, cannabis oil and cannabis seeds.

    In the coming months, the OCS will continue to hold competitive product calls to expand its selection of available cannabis products and to be responsive to the preferences of Ontario customers.

    The OCS is also working to finalize supply agreements with cannabis accessory suppliers to ensure a diverse selection of accessories is also available for customers. The OCS is focused on providing safe and responsible access to recreational cannabis through its online retail channel when it becomes legal on October 17, and establishing a wholesale distribution network to supply cannabis to legal private stores in Ontario once legislative requirements are put in place.

    The first purchase orders are intended to secure 3. The NSLC anticipates it will order in the range of 15 million grams in the first year. With these first purchase orders, the NSLC will carry cannabis products and 21 accessories. Recreational cannabis for recreational use will come in five formats: The NSLC has leveraged its corporate social responsibility experience and used industry best practices to ensure the product is sold responsibly and according to federal and provincial legislation.

    Are we being too cautious? There has been much recent discussion and debate surrounding cannabis in Canada, including the prescribing of medical cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Certain commentators - including the Canadian Medical Association CMA - have denounced the prescribing of cannabis for medical purposes due to a perceived lack of evidence related to the drug's efficacy, harms, and mechanism of action.

    In this commentary, we present arguments in favour of prescribing medical cannabis in Canada. We believe the anti- cannabis position taken by CMA and other commentators is not entirely evidence-based.

    Using the example of neuropathic pain, we present and summarize the clinical evidence surrounding smoked or vapourized cannabis , including recent evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of cannabis in comparison to existing standard pharmacotherapies for neuropathy. Further, we outline how the concerns expressed regarding cannabis ' mechanism of action are inconsistent with current decision-making processes related to the prescribing of many common pharmaceuticals.

    Finally, we discuss potential secondary public health benefits of prescribing cannabis for pain-related disorders in Canada and North America. Cannabis Use Patterns and Motives: Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis.

    Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California.

    Participants included medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts younger: The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses.

    Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults.

    The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users.

    Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences.

    Cannabis use patterns and motives: A comparison of younger, middle-aged, and older medical cannabis dispensary patients. Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis.

    The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults.

    Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences.

    Federal Medication FedMed collaboration of 8 partner agencies agreed on a set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible FMT terminologies to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information. Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis MC users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations.

    Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to SurveyMonkey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose recreational vs. A preference for C.

    Cannabis , or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Food and Drug Administration approved are cannabis -derived pharmaceuticals.

    Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors CB 1 and CB 2 found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics.

    Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity.

    Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations.

    This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis , effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use. Currently, important issues around laws on regulation of cannabis use lead to reflect on the prohibition, which is still in force in most countries. The present article attempts to demonstrate by explaining the concepts of the principle of harm, legal paternalism and the precautionary principle that prohibition of cannabis cannot be justified medically.

    One of the main elements highlighted is that the prohibition does not allow to avoid the consumption and the damages due to cannabis use and that these principles people should restrain from using cannabis cannot be applied. Chronic pain patients' perspectives of medical cannabis. Medical cannabis MC is used for a variety of conditions including chronic pain.

    The goal of this report was to provide an in-depth qualitative exploration of patient perspectives on the strengths and limitations of MC. In response to "How effective is medical cannabis in treating your symptoms or conditions? Open-ended responses were coded into themes and subthemes. Analysis of answers to "What is it that you like most about MC? These findings provide a patient-centered view on the advantages eg, efficacy in pain treatment, reduced use of other medications and disadvantages eg, economic and stigma of MC.

    Medical cannabis for the treatment of chronic pain and other disorders: Recently, many countries have enacted new cannabis policies, including decriminalization of cannabis possession as well as legalization of medical and recreational cannabis.

    In this context, patients and their physicians have had an increasing number of conversations about the risks and benefits of cannabis. While cannabis and cannabinoids continue to be evaluated as pharmacotherapy for medical conditions, the best evidence currently exists for the following medical conditions: We also reviewed the current state of evidence for cannabis and cannabinoids for several other medical conditions, while addressing the potential acute and chronic effects of cannabis use, which are issues that physicians must consider before making an official recommendation on the use of medical cannabis to a patient.

    As the number of patient requests for medical cannabis has been increasing, physicians must become knowledgeable on the science of medical cannabis and open to a discussion about why the patient feels that medical cannabis may be helpful. Medical cannabis use in Canada: The mode of medical cannabis delivery-whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally-may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks.

    However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery.

    The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. A total of approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June The survey examined patterns of medical cannabis use, modes of delivery used, and reasons for use. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample from nine Health Canada licensed producers.

    The main reason for using a vapourizer was to reduce negative health consequences associated with smoking.

    A majority of current vapourizer users reported using a portable vapourizer The findings suggest an increase in the popularity of vapourizers as the primary mode of delivery among approved medical users. Using vapourizers has the potential to prevent some of the adverse respiratory health consequences associated with smoking and may serve as an effective harm reduction method.

    Monitoring implications of such current and future changes to medical cannabis regulations may be beneficial to policymakers.

    The economic geography of medical cannabis dispensaries in California. The introduction of laws that permit the use of cannabis for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical cannabis industry in some US states.

    This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical cannabis dispensaries according to estimated cannabis demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone survey data from residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of cannabis consumption. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate cannabis demand i. Locations of actively operating cannabis dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models.

    Cannabis dispensaries were located in block groups with greater cannabis demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. High demand for cannabis within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of cannabis dispensaries at a block-group level.

    The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. Clinical perspectives on medical marijuana cannabis for neurologic disorders.

    The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana Cannabis sativa or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Several cannabinoids showed effectiveness or probable effectiveness for spasticity, central pain, and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. The review justifies insurance coverage for dronabinol and nabilone for these indications.

    Many insurance companies already cover these medications for other indications. It is unlikely that the review will alter coverage for herbal marijuana. Currently, no payers cover the costs of herbal medical marijuana because it is illegal under federal law and in most states. Cannabinoid preparations currently available by prescription may have a role in other neurologic conditions, but quality scientific evidence is lacking at this time.

    Summary The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana Cannabis sativa or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors.

    Recent years have witnessed increased attention to how cannabis use impacts the use of other psychoactive substances. The present study examines the use of cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, illicit substances and prescription drugs among adults who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. The Cannabis Access for Medical Purposes Survey is a question cross-sectional survey that was available to Canadian medical cannabis patients online and by hard copy in and to gather information on patient demographics, medical conditions and symptoms, patterns of medical cannabis use, cannabis substitution and barriers to access to medical cannabis.

    Respondents who reported substituting cannabis for prescription drugs were more likely to report difficulty affording sufficient quantities of cannabis , and patients under 40 years of age were more likely to substitute cannabis for all three classes of substance than older patients. The finding that cannabis was substituted for all three classes of substances suggests that the medical use of cannabis may play a harm reduction role in the context of use of these substances, and may have implications for abstinence-based substance use treatment approaches.

    Further research should seek to differentiate between biomedical substitution for prescription pharmaceuticals and psychoactive drug substitution, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind both.

    Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol, and other substances among medical cannabis patients: Drug Alcohol Rev ; Purpose To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization i. Conclusions Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration.

    Results highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands. The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects.

    Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild. Cannabis use has been increasingly accepted legally and in public opinion. However, cannabis has the potential to produce adverse physical and mental health effects and can result in cannabis use disorder CUD in a substantial percentage of both occasional and daily cannabis users. Many people have difficulty discontinuing use.

    Therefore, it would be beneficial to develop safe and effective medications for treating CUD. To achieve this, methods have been developed for screening and evaluating potential medications using animal models and controlled experimental protocols in human volunteers. In this chapter we describe: Can cannabis be considered a substitute medication for alcohol? Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e. Individual-level factors, such as severity of alcohol problems, may also moderate substitution.

    There is no clear pattern of outcomes related to cannabis substitution. Most importantly, the recommendation to prescribe alcohol-dependent individuals cannabis to help reduce drinking is premature. Future studies should use longitudinal data to better understand the consequences of cannabis substitution. Italian and European legislation. This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids.

    Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Italian most recent legislation on medical cannabis is detailed with some law proposals, also showing the inconsistent legislation within European Union. Some final considerations of future studies are also reported.

    In observational and retrospective studies, people who use cannabis are more likely than people who do not use cannabis to also use other drugs. People who take medical cannabis are also more likely to report medical and non- medical use of opioid analgesics, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Given that people who take medical cannabis and those who do not are likely to have different underlying morbidity, it is possible that medical cannabis use reduces prescription drug use yet prescription drug use remains relatively high.

    Studies comparing people who take medical cannabis with people who do not take it cannot draw conclusions about the effect of medical cannabis on drug use. To fully understand the effect of medical cannabis on the use of other drugs, prospective longitudinal studies randomizing individuals to cannabis versus other treatments are urgently needed.

    Cannabis and its derivatives: Use of cannabis is often an under-reported activity in our society. Despite legal restriction, cannabis is often used to relieve chronic and neuropathic pain, and it carries psychotropic and physical adverse effects with a propensity for addiction. This article aims to update the current knowledge and evidence of using cannabis and its derivatives with a view to the sociolegal context and perspectives for future research.

    Cannabis use can be traced back to ancient cultures and still continues in our present society despite legal curtailment. Though clinical trials demonstrate benefits in alleviating chronic and neuropathic pain, there is also significant potential physical and psychotropic side-effects of cannabis.

    Recent laboratory data highlight synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid receptors, with potential reduction of drug-seeking behavior and opiate sparing effects. Legal rulings also have changed in certain American states, which may lead to wider use of cannabis among eligible persons. Family physicians need to be cognizant of such changing landscapes with a practical knowledge on the pros and cons of medical marijuana, the legal implications of its use, and possible developments in the future.

    To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient—physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare.

    In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect s and about their overall satisfaction from this medical treatment. Our findings show a relatively high adherence rate for medical cannabis , as well as relative safety and high satisfaction among licensed patients. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field—to both patients and physicians. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient-physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare.

    Variables found associated with adherence were "country of origin" immigrant status , "type of illness" cancer vs. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field-to both patients and physicians.

    Importance Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws MML.

    Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. Objective To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Design, Participants, and Setting Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: Results Overall, from to , illicit cannabis use increased significantly more in states that passed MML than in other states 1.

    In the earlier period, illicit cannabis use and disorders decreased similarly in non-MML states and in California where prevalence was much higher to start with. In contrast, in remaining early-MML states, the prevalence of use and disorders increased. In the later period, illicit use increased by the following percentage points: Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.

    This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division MMAD that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy.

    Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A.

    A social history of moral regulation. Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6 2 , ] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K.

    The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi: Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine.

    The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating.

    Another piece in the mosaic of autoimmunity? Legalization of cannabis ' medicinal use is rapidly increasing worldwide, raising the need to evaluate medical implications of cannabis.

    Currently, evidence supports cannabis and its active ingredients as immune-modulating agents, affecting T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, and microglia cells, causing an overall reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Due to the supporting evidence of cannabinoids as an immune-modulating agent, research focusing on cannabinoids and autoimmunity has emerged.

    Several clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and fibromyalgia suggest cannabis ' effectiveness as an immune-modulator. However, contradicting results and lack of large-scale clinical trials obscure these results. Although lacking clinical research, in vitro and in vivo experiments in rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 1, and systemic sclerosis demonstrate a correlation between disease activity and cannabinoids. Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing.

    Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment.

    In this article, the authors endeavour to present concise data on cannabis pharmacology related to tetrahydrocannabinol THC , cannabidiol CBD et al. CBD, in contrast to THC, is less potent, and may require much higher doses for its adjunctive benefits on pain, inflammation, and attenuation of THC-associated anxiety and tachycardia. Dose initiation should commence at modest levels, and titration of any cannabis preparation should be undertaken slowly over a period of as much as two weeks.

    Suggestions are offered on cannabis -drug interactions, patient monitoring, and standards of care, while special cases for cannabis therapeutics are addressed: Neurological Disorders in Medical Use of Cannabis: Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache , as well as in other medical conditions e.

    Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the longterm have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events. It has been noticed that the use of medical cannabis can lead to a paradoxical effects depending on the amount of deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC -like cannabinoids the preparation contain. Accordingly, some neurological disorders or symptoms e. The current review presents an update of the neurological adverse effects resulting from the use of cannabis for medical purposes, highlighting the need to weigh the benefits and risks, when using cannabinoidbased treatments.

    The medicalisation of revolt: In a qualitative study, we investigated the medical motives of Norwegian cannabis users, none of whom had legal access to medical cannabis. Cannabis was used therapeutically for conditions such as multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rheumatism, as well as for quality of life conditions such as quality of sleep, relaxation and wellbeing.

    The borders between medical and recreational cannabis use were blurred. This article identifies strategies of medical cannabis users to gain social acceptance. Several respondents downplayed effects such as intoxication and euphoria. Others used the language of medicine and knowledge of current research in psychopharmacology.

    Cannabis was contrasted with the potential for abuse of prescription medicines. The medical cannabis movement has had little success in Norway. Medical professionals are unable to accept that users may be more knowledgeable than experts and medical users cannot discard the values of traditional cannabis culture.

    Calls for medical cannabis use are thus perceived as a gambit in attempts to have cannabis legalised. We argue that, despite having had little effect on health authorities, the medical cannabis movement may be having the unintended effect of medicalising cannabis use and using it as a cure for everyday problems. Prescription drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States.

    Alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain are necessary to address this issue. Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications. Medical cannabis patients report that cannabis is just as effective, if not more, than opioid-based medications for pain. The current study examined the use of cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication by collecting survey data from medical cannabis patients.

    Thirty-four percent of the sample reported using opioid-based pain medication in the past 6 months. Respondents overwhelmingly reported that cannabis provided relief on par with their other medications , but without the unwanted side effects.

    Results were similar for those using cannabis with nonopioid-based pain medications. Future research should track clinical outcomes where cannabis is offered as a viable substitute for pain treatment and examine the outcomes of using cannabis as a medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence. What does the future hold? Despite this, today there is still a paucity of drugs that target the cannabinoid system.

    During the last decade we are witnessing a rise in medical cannabis use, yet the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of the different cannabinoid compounds is scarce. We believe that the role of the clinical research community is to identify the potential benefit of the new compounds under the Evidence Based Medicine paradigm. In this editorial review we shall present a summary of selected evidence of safety and efficacy of cannabis derived products with an emphasis on prospective studies in Israel.

    This article is protected by copyright. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. This review considers the potential influences of the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes CTP on areas of interest to mental health professionals, with foci on adult psychopathology and assessment.

    We identified 31 articles relating to the use of CTP and mental health, and 29 review articles on cannabis use and mental health that did not focus on use for therapeutic purposes. Results reflect the prominence of mental health conditions among the reasons for CTP use, and the relative dearth of high-quality evidence related to CTP in this context, thereby highlighting the need for further research into the harms and benefits of medical cannabis relative to other therapeutic options.

    Preliminary evidence suggests that CTP may have potential for the treatment of PTSD, and as a substitute for problematic use of other substances. Extrapolation from reviews of non-therapeutic cannabis use suggests that the use of CTP may be problematic among individuals with psychotic disorders. The clinical implications of CTP use among individuals with mood disorders are unclear.

    With regard to assessment, evidence suggests that CTP use does not increase risk of harm to self or others. Acute cannabis intoxication and recent CTP use may result in reversible deficits with the potential to influence cognitive assessment, particularly on tests of short-term memory.

    Weeding Out the Truth: The use of cannabis for both legal similar to alcohol and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally , as of November , 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized " medical " cannabis , and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older.

    It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis , and will address the following. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered.

    The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December and January A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis median 5 out of 5 and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis median 2 out of 5.

    In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

    Medical use of cannabis. The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues.

    Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia.

    CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia.

    This paper discusses the evolution of U. It first summarizes the research evidence on the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for various medical uses. It then outlines the challenges in developing new pharmaceutical cannabinoids that are safe, effective, and acceptable to patients.

    It briefly describes the strengths and limitations of the different ways in which U. These include allowing access for research trials only, allowing medical necessity as a defense against prosecution, and allowing commercial medical dispensaries to provide cannabis to approved patients. It argues that liberal definitions of indications for medical cannabis use and the commercialization of medical cannabis supply in California have produced the de facto legalization of recreational cannabis use.

    Patterns of Use and Perceived Efficacy. The political climate around Cannabis as a medicine is rapidly changing. Legislators are adopting policies regarding appropriate medical applications, while the paucity of research may make policy decisions around conditions for which Cannabis is an effective medicine difficult. An anonymous online survey was developed to query medical Cannabis users about the conditions they use Cannabis to treat, their use patterns, perception of efficacy, and physical and mental health.

    Participants were recruited through social media and Cannabis dispensaries in Washington State. A total of participants identified as medical Cannabis users. The most frequently reported conditions for which they used Cannabis were pain Global health scores were on par with the general population for mental health and physical health. While patient-reported outcomes favor strong efficacy for a broad range of symptoms, many medical users are using Cannabis without physician supervision and for conditions for which there is no formal research to support the use of Cannabis e.

    Future research and public policy should attempt to reduce the incongruence between approved and actual use. Testing the self- medication hypothesis of depression and aggression in cannabis -dependent subjects.

    A self- medication hypothesis has been proposed to explain the association between cannabis use and psychiatric and behavioral problems. However, little is known about the reasons for use and reactions while intoxicated in cannabis users who suffer from depression or problems controlling violent behavior.

    We assessed cannabis -dependent subjects using the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry SCAN , parts of the Addiction Severity Index ASI , and questionnaires on reasons for cannabis use and reactions to cannabis use while intoxicated. Participants with lifetime depression and problems controlling violent behavior were compared to subjects without such problems.

    Validity of the groupings was corroborated by use of a psychiatric treatment register, previous use of psychotropic medication and convictions for violence. Subjects with lifetime depression used cannabis for the same reasons as others. While under the influence of cannabis , they more often experienced depression, sadness, anxiety and paranoia, and they were less likely to report happiness or euphoria.

    Participants reporting problems controlling violent behavior more often used cannabis to decrease aggression, decrease suspiciousness, and for relaxation; while intoxicated they more often reacted with aggression.

    Subjects with prior depression do not use cannabis as a mean of self- medication. They are more likely to experience specific increases of adverse symptoms while under the influence of cannabis , and are less likely to experience specific symptom relief. There is some evidence that cannabis is used as a means of self- medication for problems controlling aggression. Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines.

    However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. Associations between medical cannabis and other drug use among unstably housed women. Several studies suggest that U. The purpose of this study was to estimate independent associations between medical and non- medical use of cannabis and use of stimulants and opioids among unstably housed women.

    These associations were not modified by HIV status. Associations between use of cannabis and "street drugs" depend on whether the cannabis is obtained through a medical context. Interventions, research, and policy considering the influence of cannabis on the use of other drugs may benefit by distinguishing between medical and non- medical cannabis use. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: Methods A Web-based item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy.

    Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit.

    Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical cannabis patients.

    Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire CMMQ among a sample of medical cannabis patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate properties of the CMMQ. Multiple regressions were used to estimate associations between motives and cannabis use, physical health functioning, and mental health functioning.

    Fit indices were acceptable, and factor loadings ranged from 0. Regression analyses also revealed that distinct motives were associated with cannabis use and physical and mental health functioning. Among adults seeking medical cannabis certification, the factor structure of the CMMQ was supported, and consistent with prior studies of adolescents and young adults using cannabis recreationally. Thus, individuals who use cannabis medically may have diverse reasons for use that extend beyond the management of medical symptoms.

    In addition, coping and sleep-related motives may be particularly salient for this population. Findings support the utility of the CMMQ in future research on medical cannabis use; however, expansion of the scale may be needed to address medical motives for use. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a being female, b being white, c being on disability, d not having a medical cannabis card, and e frequency of using cannabis to help sleep.

    Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown.

    The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Historical perspective on the medical use of cannabis for epilepsy: Ancient times to the s.

    There has been a dramatic surge in the interest of utilizing cannabis for epilepsy treatment in the US. Yet, access to cannabis for research and therapy is mired in conflicting regulatory policies and shifting public opinion. Understanding the current state of affairs in the medical cannabis debate requires an examination of the history of medical cannabis use. From ancient Chinese pharmacopeias to the current Phase III trials of pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol, this review covers the time span of cannabis use for epilepsy therapy so as to better assess the issues surrounding the modern medical opinion of cannabis use.

    This article is part of a Special Issue titled Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Suryadevara, Uma; Bruijnzeel, Dawn M. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world and there is growing concern about the mental health effects of cannabis use.

    These concerns are at least partly due to the strong increase in recreational and medical cannabis use and the rise in tetrahydrocannabinol THC levels. This review provides an overview of the perceived benefits and adverse mental health effects of cannabis use in people with ALS, MS, AD, PD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reviewed studies indicate that cannabis use diminishes some symptoms associated with these disorders. Cannabis use decreases pain and spasticity in people with MS, decreases tremor, rigidity, and pain in people with PD, and improves the quality of life of ALS patients by improving appetite, and decreasing pain and spasticity.

    Cannabis use is more common among people with schizophrenia than healthy controls. Cannabis use is a risk factor for schizophrenia which increases positive symptoms in schizophrenia patients and diminishes negative symptoms. Cannabis use worsens bipolar disorder and there is no evidence that bipolar patients derive any benefit from cannabis. Cannabis use diminishes some of the adverse effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    However, chronic cannabis use may lead to cognitive impairments and dependence. Cannabis is widely used to self- medicate by older people and people with brain disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , multiple sclerosis MS , Alzheimer's disease AD , Parkinson's disease PD , bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. In late stage Alzheimer's patients, cannabis products may improve food intake, sleep quality, and diminish agitation.

    The production and consumption of cannabis for the treatment of medical conditions is of increasing importance internationally; however, research on different aspects of the phenomenon is still scarce. In this article, we report findings from a cross-cultural study of small-scale cannabis cultivation for medical purposes. This kind of comparative study has not been done previously.

    In the analysis we compare reports of medical motives, for what conditions cannabis is used, whether users have diagnoses for these conditions and whether the use of cannabis been recommended as a treatment of those conditions by a medical doctor.

    Descriptive statistics are used to show the main commonalities and noteworthy disparities across different countries. Findings from countries were quite similar, even though several national differences in details were found. Growing cannabis for medical purposes was widespread. The majority of medical growers reported cultivating cannabis for serious conditions. Most of them did have a formal diagnosis. One fifth had got a recommendation from their doctor, but in most cases cannabis use was self- medication which was not discussed with their doctors.

    There is a wider demand for licit access for medical cannabis than currently available in these countries. Ideologically, medical growers can be seen distancing themselves from both the legal and illicit drug markets. From a harm reduction perspective, it is worrying that, in the context of present health and control policies in these countries, many medical growers are using cannabis to treat serious medical conditions without proper medical advice and doctor's guidance.

    New Mexico was the first state to list post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD as a condition for the use of medical cannabis. There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report and statistically analyze psychometric data on PTSD symptoms collected during 80 psychiatric evaluations of patients applying to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program from to Cannabis is associated with reductions in PTSD symptoms in some patients, and prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to determine efficacy of cannabis and its constituents in treating PTSD.

    Stroke from Vasospasm due to Marijuana Use: We present a case of imaging proven cerebral vasospasm causing ischemic stroke in a young patient chronically on buprenorphine-naloxone for heroin remission who started smoking cannabis on a daily basis. With cannabis legalization spreading across the states in the USA, it is important for physicians not only to be aware of cannabis reported association with cerebral vasospasm in some patients but also to be on the lookout for possible interacting medications that can synergistically affect cerebral vessels causing debilitating strokes.

    Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws MML. To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: Overall, from to , illicit cannabis use increased significantly more in states that passed MML than in other states 1.

    Compared with never-MML states, increases in use were. Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample. Little is known about cannabis use frequency, medical cannabis use, or correlates of use among persons living with HIV PLWH in United States nationally representative samples. Logistic regression identified characteristics associated with frequency of cannabis use. Chi-squares identified characteristics associated with medial cannabis use. Non-daily and daily cannabis use was reported by

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