There are several different types of seizures. Focal seizures with retained awareness This type of focal seizure was previously known as a simple partial. Find out more about the different kinds of seizures and the symptoms they cause. Seizures are generally described in two major groups: generalized seizures and focal seizures. This term was used before and still includes seizures types like tonic-clonic, absence, or atonic to name a few. Focal onset seizures: The term focal is used instead of partial to be more.
of Seizures Types Common
There are several different types of seizures in children, including the following: These take place when abnormal electrical brain function occurs in one or more areas of one side of the brain.
In about one-third of children with partial seizures, the child may experience an aura before the seizure occurs. An aura is a strange feeling, either consisting of visual changes, hearing abnormalities or changes in the sense of smell. Two types of partial seizures include: The seizures typically last less than one minute. The child may show different symptoms depending upon which area of the brain is involved. If the abnormal electrical brain function is in the occipital lobe the back part of the brain that is involved with vision , the child's sight may be altered.
The child's muscles are typically more commonly affected. The seizure activity is limited to an isolated muscle group, such as fingers or to larger muscles in the arms and legs. Consciousness is not lost in this type of seizure. The child may also experience sweating, nausea or become pale.
This type of seizure commonly occurs in the temporal lobe of the brain, the area of the brain that controls emotion and memory function. This seizure usually lasts between one to two minutes. Consciousness is usually lost during these seizures and a variety of behaviors can occur in the child. When the child regains consciousness, the child may complain of being tired or sleepy after the seizure.
This is called the postictal period. Generalized seizures involve both sides of the brain. There is loss of consciousness and a postictal state after the seizure occurs. Types of generalized seizures include: Absence seizures formerly known as petit mal seizures. These seizures are characterized by an altered state of consciousness and staring episodes.
Typically the child's posture is maintained during the seizure. The mouth or face may move or the eyes may blink. The seizure usually lasts no longer than 30 seconds. These seizures may occur several times a day.
This type of seizure is sometimes mistaken for a learning problem or behavioral problem. Absence seizures are uncommon before the age of 5 and occur more often in girls. During the seizure, the child is limp and unresponsive. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures GTC or formerly known as grand mal seizures. This seizure is characterized by five distinct phases that occur in the child. The body, arms and legs will flex contract , extend straighten out , tremor shake , a clonic period contraction and relaxation of the muscles , followed by the postictal period.
During the postictal period, the child may be sleepy, have problems with vision or speech, and may have a bad headache, fatigue or body aches. This type of seizure refers to quick movements or sudden jerking of a group of muscles. These seizures tend to occur in clusters, meaning that they may occur several times a day, or for several days in a row. This rare type of seizure disorder occurs in infants from before six months of age.
There is a high occurrence rate of this seizure when the child is awakening, or when they are trying to go to sleep. The infant usually has brief periods of movement of the neck, trunk or legs that lasts for a few seconds. Infants may have hundreds of these seizures a day. This can be a serious problem and can have long-term complications. This type of seizure is associated with fever.
These seizures are more commonly seen in children between 6 months and 6 years of age and there may be a family history of this type of seizure. Children with these types of epilepsy have an underlying brain disorder or injury or a genetic condition. This may include cerebral palsy , head trauma, infection, developmental malformations, or chromosomal abnormalities. Most often, a child with this type of seizure has developmental delays in addition to the seizures.
The seizures can be of any type, including generalized convulsions and focal seizures. The child may also experience spasms, as well as tonic seizures, in which the body, arms, or legs make sudden stiffening movements. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy is rare and frequently results from hereditary metabolic disorders, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and mitochondrial encephalopathy.
In addition to seizures, symptoms may include unsteadiness, muscle rigidity, and mental deterioration. In reflex epilepsy, seizures are triggered by specific stimuli in the environment. If flashing lights trigger a seizure, for instance, this is called photosensitive epilepsy.
Reflex epilepsy usually begins in childhood and is often outgrown by adulthood. Environmental triggers may also include sounds, such as the ringing of church bells. For some children, seizures can be provoked by activities such as reading, writing, solving math problems, and even thinking about a certain subject. These nonvisual stimuli may trigger generalized or focal seizures. Ohtahara syndrome is a rare type of epilepsy that develops in newborns, often within the first two weeks of life.
The seizures are primarily tonic seizures but may also include partial seizures and myoclonic seizures. Ohtahara syndrome is often caused by metabolic disorders or brain damage, although in many babies the cause cannot be determined.
Some babies with Ohtahara syndrome die within weeks or months after symptoms begin. Others develop permanent mental and neurological problems.
Some babies with Ohtahara syndrome go on to develop other types of epilepsy. These include West syndrome, which usually occurs within a few months after seizures begin, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, which can develop around age two, with the majority of children developing it before age seven. Benign familial neonatal seizures cause recurrent seizures in newborns.
The seizures usually begin when the infant is about three days old and are brief, lasting one to two minutes. This condition causes generalized tonic-clonic seizures, which affect the entire body, causing muscle rigidity, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. It involves both sides of the brain. In most infants, benign familial neonatal seizures stop by the time the child is four months old. Several types of epilepsy begin in the first year of life. Types of epilepsy and seizure disorders that start during infancy include the following.
Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, are rare. This is a severe type of epilepsy syndrome that begins in children who are 3 to 12 months old. These seizures consist of a sudden jerking movement followed by stiffening.
Sometimes the child flings his or her arms out as the body bends forward. A brain disorder or injury, such as birth trauma with oxygen deprivation, precedes these seizures in 60 percent of infants who have this condition. In the other 40 percent, no cause can be determined. Dravet syndrome is a severe type of epilepsy syndrome often resulting from a gene mutation that causes abnormalities in sodium channels in the brain, which play a role in nerve cell communication.
Seizures generally begin before the child is one year old and can be difficult to control. There are several neurologic disorders that may lead to an epileptic syndrome, causing seizures in children. Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes seizures. This genetic condition typically affects girls and begins when the child is 6 to 18 months old. Angelman syndrome is a type of epilepsy syndrome that causes learning difficulties, speech delays, and certain behavioral characteristics, such as a cheerful mood and bursts of sudden and unexplained laughter.
The condition is a genetic disorder that usually develops when babies are 6 to 12 months old. Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in multiple organs of the body, such as the brain, skin, kidneys, lungs, and heart. When these tumors are in the brain, they trigger seizures.
The condition often appears during the first 12 months of life. It can also cause autism and developmental or neurocognitive delays, although about 33 percent to 40 percent of children with this condition have no neurocognitive delay. Seizures occur in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome, a congenital neurological disorder, due to abnormalities in the blood vessels lining the brain. Children with Sturge-Weber syndrome often have a port wine stain birthmark on the forehead and upper eyelid of one side of the face.
There is a greater likelihood of intellectual impairment when seizures start before a child is two years old and are resistant to treatment. A febrile seizure occurs when a child between six months and six years old has a tonic-clonic seizure plus a high fever, which may occur as a result of a viral illness.
Febrile seizures occur in 2 percent to 5 percent of children. The peak age for this type of seizure is about 18 months old. Febrile seizures can last as briefly as a minute or 2 or continue for 30 minutes or longer.
The disorder may start suddenly or slowly. Typically, a child from three to seven years old experiences progressive language difficulties. Seizures are infrequent and mainly occur during sleep. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an uncommon form of epilepsy that causes difficult-to-control seizures, including tonic, atonic, prolonged absences, and generalized convulsions.
Almost all children who have Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have cognitive and developmental delays. Rasmussen syndrome is rare and usually begins in children who are 14 months to 14 years old. Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures PNES Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are not due to epilepsy but may look very similar to an epilepsy seizure. Since , we have been serving the province as a registered health charity incorporated under the statutes of Ontario as a non-profit and non-governmental organization.
We aim to raise public awareness and improve education through publications, conferences, outreach initiatives and our website. Skip to main content. About Epilepsy What is Epilepsy? What is a Seizure? Focal or partial seizures Expand 1. Focal or partial seizures Section Focal or partial seizures occur when seizure activity is limited to a part of one brain hemisphere.
Types of Epilepsy & Seizure Disorders in Children
A full list of the types of epileptic seizure someone with epilepsy can have. Absence seizures (previously called petit-mal) are more common in children than in. Learn about different types of seizures and their signs and symptoms so you can tell when someone is having a seizure. Visit our first aid page to learn what you. What are the Different Types of Seizures. Generally, seizures fall into the two categories: focal and generalized seizures. The difference between these types is.