What Is PIP? (Plus Reasons For Injection Pain)
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Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens , are significant human pathogens. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S.
Members of the genus Serratia , particularly the type species Serratia marcescens , cause important infections in humans, animals, and insects. Taxonomically, the genus Serratia is confusing, and currently there are 14 recognized species, with 2 subspecies, in the genus Table 1. This paper describes the colorful history of S. First described in , S. Since many strains of S. These experiments were unearthed by investigative journalism in the mids, prompting a congressional investigation that studied U.
In the meantime, S. Many of the other members of the genus, though, are rarely isolated in clinical microbiology labs and hence may not be recognized readily by laboratory personnel. The purpose of this review is to give perspective on the history of S. Currently accepted species and subspecies in the genus Serratia. Early History In early July , a phenomenon occurred in the province of Padua, Italy, that disturbed many of the peasants in the area, particularly in the town of Legnaro 37 , This particular summer had been warmer and more humid than normal, and the polenta, a dish of cornmeal mush made by many families, turned red.
The police were asked to investigate, and they appointed a commission of professors from the University of Padua to assist 37 , Bartolomeo Bizio, a pharmacist, studied the phenomenon independently of the University of Padua commission. Bizio conducted experiments wherein he concluded that the red-pigmented polenta was a natural phenomenon in an anonymous paper he authored in August 37 , 49 , Bizio successfully cultivated the organism on fresh polenta in these and subsequent experiments and found that reddish discoloration of the polenta could occur in less than 24 h 37 , 49 , Bizio did not officially publish his results until , when he wrote a letter to Angelino Bellani, a priest, defending his original anonymous article from a paper written by Pietro Melo, Director of the Botanical Garden at Saonara In his paper, Bizio determined that the cause of the red polenta was an organism he believed to be a fungus that he named Serratia marcescens , after the Italian physicist Serafino Serrati, who pioneered early work on steamboats 37 , 49 , Bizio observed that small red spots would appear on the cornmeal mush, get larger, and eventually coalesce into a reddish mass of gelatin.
At the same time that Bizio was conducting his independent investigation, Vincenzo Sette accompanied the University of Padua commission. He came to a similar conclusion as Bizio—that the discolored polenta was a result of a natural process. He presented his data on 28 April but was not able to publish his findings until Sette named the causative agent Zaogalactina imetrofa , and he also thought that the organism looked like a fungus Then, in , the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg investigated red spots that appeared on a cooked potato in Germany.
This discoloration was similar to that seen in the red polenta in Italy; however, Ehrenberg was initially unaware of this.
He later read Sette's published results and concluded that this was probably the same phenomenon. Ehrenberg studied the discolored material under a microscope, and with the improved optics of the time, he saw more detail than the researchers in were able to see. Ehrenberg noticed actual oval cells in the material, believed that the cells were motile, and stated that they divided longitudinally by fission. In addition, he reported seeing flagella. Because of all of these characteristics, he thought the cells were animals and named the agent Monas prodigiosa 49 , Over the course of many years, this organism was described by many different names, and taxonomically it is one of the most complicated organisms that has been described.
The now accepted name of S. While Ehrenberg is himself part of the history of the discovery of S. Ehrenberg and other investigators described the propensity of S. The Macedonians then went on to take the city There are many excellent reviews that cover the ancient history of S. Use in Medical Experiments In the late part of the 19th century, William Coley, an oncologist, developed a formula consisting of Streptococcus pyogenes and S. This treatment, called by names such as Coley's fluid, Coley's vaccine, Coley's toxins, and mixed bacterial vaccine, was first used in patients in by Coley and continued to be used into the s in the United States , This preparation was also used in many other countries, and the German pharmaceutical company Südmedica sold Coley's toxins under the trade name Vaccineurin until Meanwhile, the first of several medical experiments with S.
Gordon in ; thus, while the name of the organism was still in question, the pigment characteristics were well known. Gordon was asked to investigate the atmospheric hygiene of the House of Commons in Britain after a recent outbreak of influenza had occurred among the members 9.
Gordon, in a now famous experiment, set empty petri plates around him in an empty House of Commons and gargled a liquid culture of S. Gordon apparently did not become ill from his experiment The next tracing experiment occurred just after World War I. Cumming and Captain J. Cox, both Medical Corps officers of the U. Army, sprayed the throats, mouths, and lips of five U.
The donors were then instructed to eat and then wash their eating utensils and mess kit in warm water. Over the next week, Cumming and Cox conducted two more similar S. The organism was used as a tracer organism by investigators in medical fields as well. In , Burket and Burn spread S. Burket and Burn drew blood cultures from the volunteers after painting their gums and isolated S.
Similar experiments were conducted with S. In an attempt to test equipment designed to remove bacteria from air and to show that S. Army conducted an experiment on 2 October , at Camp Detrick, MD, in which he exposed four individuals to about 2,, viable S. Two of the men in the experiment had previously been exposed to S. Each of the men was admitted to a hospital and monitored.
Three of the subjects had fever and chills, and two of the subjects still had fever at 24 h postexposure. Four days after the experiment, all of the subjects were asymptomatic Paine does not address whether the men in the experiment were military personnel or civilian volunteers. Another set of medical experiments using S.
These investigators applied S. Each patient had an indwelling catheter, and all were semicomatose. The authors then collected urine from the patients at different times to determine if the presence of the indwelling catheter could facilitate entry of S. Urine that was collected immediately and 24 and 48 h after application of S. The parents noticed that soiled diapers that had been rinsed with plain water before being placed in a receptacle provided by a commercial diaper laundry service turned red.
This first occurred 3 days after the infant had been discharged from the newborn nursery, and after a week, about one-third of the diapers became red after being placed in the receptacle. At this point, the stool of the infant was cultured and S. Although the baby never had signs or symptoms of illness, physicians treated her with oral sulfasuxidine.
Diapers that followed treatment were less red, but the organism persisted in the baby's intestinal tract for several months. The other parents who had infants born at the same time and who also stayed in the same newborn nursery were contacted, and red diapers were not observed by any of them. It was learned, however, that a biomedical laboratory that was within yards of the hospital had been using S.
Apparently, live organisms were used in the tests and allowed to escape into the air around the laboratory. Another laboratory in an adjoining building reported S. Thus, it is more than likely that the baby's S. Apparently, the use of S. In , Whalen wrote a short letter stating that laboratory manuals of the time still described procedures for applying S. By the early s, it was becoming clear that S.
In fact, events in the s eventually detailed just how often S. Senate Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research held hearings that described biological warfare tracer organism tests that the U. One of the organisms used in the tests was S. Except for Cumming and Cox studying transmission of S. The earliest reference appears in the s, as described by Henry Wickham Steed.
Steed, a respected British journalist and previous editor of The Times , wrote an article published in in the periodical The Nineteenth Century and After in which he alleged that Germany was actively involved in biological warfare experimentation , Steed described documents that he received from sources that contained notes with experiments conducted by the Germans in Paris first on 18 August According to Steed, German agents released S.
The documents that Steed obtained also allegedly describe aerial release experiments of S. In addition, other experiments were alleged to have taken place at other locations in France. The documents that Steed received apparently no longer exist, and it is probable that he destroyed them in The authenticity of the notes, including the obtained microbiological data, has been called into question.
Some consider that the documents that Steed received were forgeries. The French took Steed's article very seriously at the time; Germany denied the report Then, in the mids, came the news that triggered the U.
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Injecting an intramuscular anabolic steroid (They are all pretty much IM their glute when they injected too shallow (not deep enough into the muscle) so the oil . I-Team: Patients Not Warned About Scarring Side Effect Of Steroid He gave The steroid injection helped clear the laryngitis, but Maegan was shocked at injection 10months ago has left an 8x5mm dent in my arm, it 39;s deep and discoloured. I use a very diluted concentration to reduce your risk enough to work, but. The reviewer does not practice aspiration as a routine procedure unless the heat and, in severe instances, subconjunctival cortisone injections, are indicated. In the rare case with deep and painful ulceration, local analgesic preparations may it is not possible to plan prophylaxis scientifically and there is not enough .