Using steroid creams
You have sent too many requests causing Linguee to block your computerChronic hand eczema is a common and often debilitating condition. Alitretinoin, a 9- cis -retinoic acid and pan-retinoic acid agonist, is a new and effective systemic treatment freie testosteron praparate chronic hand eczema, which provides another treatment option. Even higher rates of remission can be obtained with a longer duration of treatment. Alitretinoin has a favorable overall profile of adverse effects; however, female patients who are at risk of becoming pregnant should follow a strict pregnancy-prevention program due to the teratogenic steroid cream long term use of this drug. Eczema or dermatitis are broad terms to describe an inflammatory skin condition, steroid cream long term use may be dry, red, itchy, and flaky. Dermatitis is the most common skin disease affecting the hands.
A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment of Atopic Eczema
Atopic eczema AE is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder which usually develops in early childhood. In spite of intensive investigations, the causes of AE remain unclear, but are likely to be multifactorial in nature.
Environmental factors or genetic-environmental interactions seem to play a key role in disease progression. Among various measures of AE managment, cutaneous hydration, which improves barrier function and relieve itchiness, may be helpful to reduce the need for topical steroid use and therefore should be used as a basic treatment.
Avoiding aggravating factors is also a basic treatment of AE. Standard medical treatment with a pharmacologic approach may be necessary if basic treatment fails to control symptoms satisfactorily. Recently, more attention is given to a proactive therapeutic by regular intermittent application of low potency steroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors to prevent new flares. Furthermore, various targeted biologics are being introduced for AE control and are proposed as promising therapies.
This paper provides a summary of the recent literature on the manangement of AE and a treatment guideline. Atopic eczema AE, or atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing, pruritic, inflammatory eczematous eruption that usually starts in early life.
Some studies suggest that environmental factors influence the increase in the prevalence of AE. Small family size, increased income, education, migration from rural to urban environments, and increased use of antibiotics may all be associated with the rise in AE.
Since s, the prevalence of AE has increased more than 3-fold. We suggest that the basis for this increase in prevalence, as well as the causes of AE, involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors.
For the age group of years from centers in 96 countries, disease prevalence ranged from 0. The epidemiologic study showed that parents' allergic diseases including AE might affect the development of AE in their offspring. AE is a worldwide public health concern with significant financial burden. In addition, AE affects the quality of life of families as well as victims themselves. Therefore, AE remains a challenging disease for physicians and patients.
In this review, we proposed recommendations for the general treatment of AE based on the recent literature. AE is a chronic skin inflammation and its symptoms wax and wane with various manifestations. Individualized therapy for the patient should be implemented according to patients' age, severity and extent of AE, and distribution of the lesion. To control AE, in addition to main pharmacologic therapy, other measures such as cutaneous hydration, identification and elimination of aggravating factors, relief of pruritus, and patient education should be considered.
We categorize the treatment options into 3: Reduction in dryness with emollient often relieves pruritus. Aggravating factors should be avoided by individualized evaluation. AE is characterized by an impaired skin barrier with xerosis, which needs to be strictly controlled by cutaneous hydration.
FLG gene mutations are commonly shown in AE patients, which decrease the natural moisturizing factors. Importantly, emollients should be applied within 3 minutes after showers or baths, as the skin can become dry otherwise.
Emollients need to be applied on the skin at least twice a day, including the unaffected skin. The most appropriate moisturizer is decided depending on the season, patient's preferences, and symptoms. For example, in the summer season, lotions are nmostly preferred to ointments. In addition, preservatives or fragrances that may aggravate the skin condition should be considered.
In our previous study, we proved that AE patients, in general, did not use the proper amount of emollients. Wet dressing can promote the transepidermal penetration of topical glucocorticoids with skin barrier recovery, especially for acute oozing lesions. In cases involving oozing lesions, dressing with wet gauze can reduce the chances of infection, and the drying effect due to evaporation can be beneficial to oozing lesions. Dressing is also effective to protect the skin from scratching.
In the management of AE, many aggravating factors have to be considered and identified on a patient-by-patient basis. AE should be properly managed based on a detailed assessment of any potential aggravating factors. Commonly, individuals with AE have more sensitive skin than the general population. Perfumed fabric softeners can also cause irritation. Wool can cause irritation, and nylon cannot absorb sweat.
Smooth clothing such as cotton is preferred to minimize skin irritation. New clothing should ideally be laundered before use.
Double rinsing is helpful for the removal of detergents. AE patients should always make sure to maintain a pleasant temperature and humidity level in their environment. Mild sports activities or swimming is good to relieve stress, although sports that may induce intense perspiration or heat should be restricted. Sunscreen is good for preventing sunburn, but as it can also lead to skin irritation, thereby patients should always choose nonirritating products. There are numerous triggering and exacerbating factors in AE.
Food and inhalant allergens can aggravate the symptoms of AE. In children in particular, food allergens can exacerbate AE, although this correlation is still controversial. In cases of severe AE, which can be suddenly aggravated after therapy is discontinued, food allergens are often considered triggering factors.
Tests for evaluating food allergies include skin prick testing, serum-specific IgE level checks, radioallergosorbent tests, and immunoCAP tests. Negative test results are helpful to rule out suspected allergens.
Positive results require clinical correlation and confirmation by scrutinizing and eliminating foods that are suspected to be the cause. After avoiding the suspected food for 4 to 6 weeks, an oral food challenge should be performed to confirm whether it is indeed a cause of AE flares for the patient. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge is considered the gold standard for diagnosing food allergies.
The avoidance of food allergens is the best therapy, although the imprudent elimination of food can cause nutritional deficiencies.
Therefore, maintaining a good diet is also very important. Food-related AE can often resolve with time; intermittent rechallenging should be undertaken every 6 to 12 months.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Food Allergy Expert Panel suggest that food allergens, such as cows' milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and peanuts, should be considered to be restricted in patients under five years of age with moderate to severe AE.
In contrast to food allergens, positivity to aeroallergens increases with age. Sensitivity to inhalant allergens, such as dust mites, pollen, animal danders, and fungi, is more common in moderate-to-severe AE patients. Dust mites are the most common allergen among patients with AE, and avoiding this allergen is helpful to patients. Maintaining proper humidity and temperature levels through ventilation is recommended.
The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis is increasing in AE patients. The most common contact allergens are nickel, neomycin, fragrances, formaldehyde, lanolin, and rubber chemicals.
Because there are many triggers contributing to flares of AE, attention needs to be paid to identifying and controlling factors that contribute to flares on a patient-by-patient basis. Psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, can occur in AE patients. Emotional stress can provoke itching and scratching, and thus exacerbate AE. Therefore, AE patients with emotional or psychological problems should try to relax, and counseling can be helpful to break the itch-scratch cycle, especially in adolescents and young adults.
Relaxation, behavioral modification, or biofeedback may also be of benefit, especially in patients with habitual scratching. For patients with mild AE symptoms, topical medications are the primary choice of treatment. However, if the basic and topical therapies fail, a systemic approach may be necessary. Cyclosporin and short-term systemic glucocorticoids are commonly used. Alternative therapies include phototherapy, antimetabolites, interferon-gamma, allergen immunotherapy, andbiologics, depending on cases.
The effectiveness of new biologics on AE is being reported in recent years, suggesting that biologics can be a promising targeted therapy for AE in the future. Topical glucocorticoids are a mainstay therapeutic agent for AE.
They are known to be one of the most effective pharmaceutics in controlling AE symptoms, such as itchiness and inflammation, although their application can accompany a number of side effects. Potential adverse effects include the development of striae, skin atrophy, perioral dermatitis, acne rosacea, and adrenal suppression.
Glucocorticoids are categorized into seven classes by potency based on vasoconstrictor assays. Physicians should recommend topical steroids of the appropriate potency considering the patient's age, disease severity, and extent and, distribution of lesions. Very potent steroids are effective intreating AE flares; however, as improvement is observed, providers need to use steroids of lower potency and reduce the frequency of applications.
In addition, physicians should educate patients to limit the use of high potency steroids to severe or lichenified lesions only. The use of high potency steroids should be avoided on thin skin, such as face or skin folds. Also, it is not recommended to use them for more than 2 weeks in a row.
There have been reports that the long-term use of low potency steroids such as fluticasone 1 to 2 times a week on AE lesions, including those already healed, can prevent the aggravation of AE. A finger tip unit FTU , a practical measure of the amount of ointment, is defined as the amount of 0. The appropriate amount of cream or ointment should be determined in FTUs based on the area of lesions requiring treatment.
Factors that influence the effectiveness of topical steroids are as follows: Topical immunomodulators, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, are nonsteroidal, topical calcineurin inhibitors. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus appear to have an anti-inflammatory potential similar or slightly less than that of midpotency corticosteroids.
The use of tacrolimus ointment 0. Transient burning or itching sensations are its only adverse effects. No complications such as skin atrophy are associated with its long-term use. Like fluticasone, topical calcineurin inhibitors are also good for proactive therapy when applied 2 to 3 times a week.
However, 1 case-control study reported no increased risk of lymphoma in AE patients who used topical calcineurin inhibitors for a long period of time, despite the existing concern about the development of lymphoma with the chronic use of the agent. Oral antihistamines relieve histamine-induced itching sensations by blocking H1 receptors. Although frequently prescribed to patients with AE, their efficacy has not been proven by controlled clinical trials.
Synonyme und Antonyme von corticosteroid auf Englisch im Synonymwörterbuch
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1 Aug Potent corticosteroid Moderate potency corticosteroid (short term). Mild wide range of preparations including gel, cream, ointment,. foam. Traditional corticosteroid activity against inflammation is related to the formation of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) within keratinocytes in response to . 31 Aug treatment of a variety of corticosteroid responsive disor- ders. It is licensed as a spray to treat allergic rhinitis or asthma and as a lotion, cream.